Wednesday, February 3, 2010

Distillation.

Distillation is the process of separating components of a mixture of a liquid-liquid solution in which the characteristics of the mixture is able to mix and easy to evaporate, besides the components have a vapor pressure difference and the results from the separation into its components or the group components. Because of differences in vapor pressure, it can also be said distillation process is the process of separation of components based on differences in boiling point.

In the distillation operation, the separation is based on the phenomenon that when the liquid mixture is in equilibrium with the vapor, vapor and liquid composition is different. Vapor will contain more components more volatile, while the liquid will contain less volatile components. When the steam is separated from the liquid, the vapor is dikondensasikan, then will get a different fluid from the first fluid, the more volatile components than the liquid that is not teruapkan. If then the liquid from the condensation of steam is evaporated again in part, be gained steam with the level of components more volatile higher. To demonstrate more clearly description, described in the following schematic:

1. Initial state.
At first, there is a mixture of liquids A and B, where the characteristics of these components is a component of a more volatile (volatile) than component B. The composition of both components are expressed by the fraction of liquid phase mol.Untuk component A is given by XA , while component B is given by xB.

2. The mixture is evaporated in part, vapor and liquid is left in a state of equilibrium.

3. Steam is separated from the liquid and condensed; the importance of the two liquids, a liquid I and liquid II. Liquid I contain less components A (more volatile) than the liquid II In the above conditions, the mixture of the two components of the liquid (binary mixture) to obtain two relatively murni.Hal fluid can be accomplished, if different boiling points of the second component relative tersebu besar.Apabila boiling point difference of the two components are not too far, it is necessary to do the distillation process.

Because of the heat entering (heating) in pendidih again, then the liquid is converted partly into a vapor, in this case the steam would be rich in volatile components (easily evaporated).

If the difference in boiling points of these components is relatively high, the vapor is a component of almost murni.Akan but if the difference of the boiling point component, it is not too large, then the steam is a mixture of campura some komponen.Kemudian the dikondensasikan steam and condensation of liquid , partially restored into a column, called the reflux.

Fluid that is returned is (reflux) attempted to contact the opposite direction to the steam, so the expected results of the (over head) will increase its purity. To obtain these conditions (purity increases), which required a lot of steam to be used as a reflux and the results above. This condition must be balanced with the heat entering the reboiler should be large (enhanced). This needs to be considered, especially in the context of energy savings.

In distillation, vapor phase formed after the solution is heated, is left in contact with the liquid phase so that the mass transfer occurs from the vapor phase or liquid phase from liquid phase to vapor phase until there is a balance between the two phases. After equilibrium is reached, the two phases then separated. Dikondensasikan vapor phase after the condenser is called the distillate, while the remaining liquid is called residu.Distilat contain more volatile components (volatile) and contains more residues that are less volatile components.

Distillation is the process of separating components of a mixture of a liquid-liquid solution in which the characteristics of the mixture is able to mix and easy to evaporate, besides the components have a vapor pressure difference and the results from the separation into its components or the group components. Because of differences in vapor pressure, it can also be said distillation process is the process of separation of components based on differences in boiling point.

In the distillation operation, the separation is based on the phenomenon that when the liquid mixture is in equilibrium with the vapor, vapor and liquid composition is different. Vapor will contain more components more volatile, while the liquid will contain less volatile components. When the steam is separated from the liquid, the vapor is dikondensasikan, then will get a different fluid from the first fluid, the more volatile components than the liquid that is not teruapkan. If then the liquid from the condensation of steam is evaporated again in part, be gained steam with the level of components more volatile higher. To demonstrate more clearly description, described in the following schematic:

1. Initial state.
At first, there is a mixture of liquids A and B, where the characteristics of these components is a component of a more volatile (volatile) than component B. The composition of both components are expressed by the fraction of liquid phase mol.Untuk component A is given by XA , while component B is given by xB.

2. The mixture is evaporated in part, vapor and liquid is left in a state of equilibrium.

3. Steam is separated from the liquid and condensed; the importance of the two liquids, a liquid I and liquid II. Liquid I contain less components A (more volatile) than the liquid II In the above conditions, the mixture of the two components of the liquid (binary mixture) to obtain two relatively murni.Hal fluid can be accomplished, if different boiling points of the second component relative tersebu besar.Apabila boiling point difference of the two components are not too far, it is necessary to do the distillation process.

Because of the heat entering (heating) in pendidih again, then the liquid is converted partly into a vapor, in this case the steam would be rich in volatile components (easily evaporated).

If the difference in boiling points of these components is relatively high, the vapor is a component of almost murni.Akan but if the difference of the boiling point component, it is not too large, then the steam is a mixture of campura some komponen.Kemudian the dikondensasikan steam and condensation of liquid , partially restored into a column, called the reflux.

Fluid that is returned is (reflux) attempted to contact the opposite direction to the steam, so the expected results of the (over head) will increase its purity. To obtain these conditions (purity increases), which required a lot of steam to be used as a reflux and the results above. This condition must be balanced with the heat entering the reboiler should be large (enhanced). This needs to be considered, especially in the context of energy savings.

In distillation, vapor phase formed after the solution is heated, is left in contact with the liquid phase so that the mass transfer occurs from the vapor phase or liquid phase from liquid phase to vapor phase until there is a balance between the two phases. After equilibrium is reached, the two phases then separated. Dikondensasikan vapor phase after the condenser is called the distillate, while the remaining liquid is called residu.Distilat contain more volatile components (volatile) and contains more residues that are less volatile components.

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