Monday, March 1, 2010

Control System

A factory designed and built with the aim to increase the value to the goods. Initial raw materials to a low value if processed in the factory will produce a product, either final products or intermediate products, the higher the point value. By changing the value of the materials to a sold value also changes. Higher selling price, of course, is expected by all because of there factory processing company profit (profit).

To get a lot of the profits produced goods would have had to have a good quality. Conditions during the production process greatly affects the quality of the product. A process will run well if operated at optimum conditions. Therefore needed a device controller (controller).

The task controller is to reduce the error signal is the difference between the signal settings with the actual signal. This is in accordance with the purpose of control system is to obtain the actual signal (the desired) together with the signal settings. The faster the reaction system following the actual signal and the smaller the error the better the performance of control systems are applied.

If the difference between setting the value of the output value is relatively large, a good controller should be able to observe this distinction to be producing output signals to influence the process. Thus the system quickly change the output process to obtain the difference between setting a regulated output as small as possible.

There are several types of controllers. First Proportional controller (P) which has output comparable to the amount of error signal (difference between the desired quantity with the actual price). Proportional controller output is the multiplication of constants proportional to the input. Changes in input signal causes the system will immediately direct the output of the constant change pengalinya. If a small proportional constant value, proportional controller is only able to correct small mistakes that will result in a slow system response. If the value is increased proportionally constant, the response shows the system more quickly reach a state tunaknya. However, if the value is enlarged so that achieving excessive prices, will cause the system works unstable or oscillating system response will be. Proportional type of controller is usually used to control the liquid level in the tank.

The second is the integral controller which functions to produce a system response has a steady state error. If a factory does not have an element of the integrator (1 / s), proportional controller will not be able to guarantee the output of the system with zero error tunaknya conditions. Integral controller is characterized as an integral. Controller output is strongly influenced by changes in the signal value proportional to the mistake. The output of this controller is a continuous sums of the changes, the output will maintain the previous state as the input changes. In its use is usually proportional integral controller controller combined with a proportional integral controller (PI). The result of the wave-shaped curve. This type of controller is usually used to control the pressure.

The third is a differential controller that has properties such as a derivatives operation. Sudden change in the input controller will cause a very big change and fast. When the input has not changed, the controller output is unchanged. Differential controller is generally used to speed up the initial response of a system, but does not minimize the error in steady state. Working differential controller is only effective in the narrow scope of the transitional period. Therefore, differential controller is never used without any other controller in a system.

Any weaknesses and strengths of each controller proportional, integral and differential can cover each other by combining all three in parallel becomes proportional integral differential controller (PID controller). Elements of the controller proportional, integral and differential individual as a whole aims to accelerate the reaction of a system, eliminate the offset and generate a large initial change. This type of controller is usually used to control the temperature and flow rate in a reactor.

A factory designed and built with the aim to increase the value to the goods. Initial raw materials to a low value if processed in the factory will produce a product, either final products or intermediate products, the higher the point value. By changing the value of the materials to a sold value also changes. Higher selling price, of course, is expected by all because of there factory processing company profit (profit).

To get a lot of the profits produced goods would have had to have a good quality. Conditions during the production process greatly affects the quality of the product. A process will run well if operated at optimum conditions. Therefore needed a device controller (controller).

The task controller is to reduce the error signal is the difference between the signal settings with the actual signal. This is in accordance with the purpose of control system is to obtain the actual signal (the desired) together with the signal settings. The faster the reaction system following the actual signal and the smaller the error the better the performance of control systems are applied.

If the difference between setting the value of the output value is relatively large, a good controller should be able to observe this distinction to be producing output signals to influence the process. Thus the system quickly change the output process to obtain the difference between setting a regulated output as small as possible.

There are several types of controllers. First Proportional controller (P) which has output comparable to the amount of error signal (difference between the desired quantity with the actual price). Proportional controller output is the multiplication of constants proportional to the input. Changes in input signal causes the system will immediately direct the output of the constant change pengalinya. If a small proportional constant value, proportional controller is only able to correct small mistakes that will result in a slow system response. If the value is increased proportionally constant, the response shows the system more quickly reach a state tunaknya. However, if the value is enlarged so that achieving excessive prices, will cause the system works unstable or oscillating system response will be. Proportional type of controller is usually used to control the liquid level in the tank.

The second is the integral controller which functions to produce a system response has a steady state error. If a factory does not have an element of the integrator (1 / s), proportional controller will not be able to guarantee the output of the system with zero error tunaknya conditions. Integral controller is characterized as an integral. Controller output is strongly influenced by changes in the signal value proportional to the mistake. The output of this controller is a continuous sums of the changes, the output will maintain the previous state as the input changes. In its use is usually proportional integral controller controller combined with a proportional integral controller (PI). The result of the wave-shaped curve. This type of controller is usually used to control the pressure.

The third is a differential controller that has properties such as a derivatives operation. Sudden change in the input controller will cause a very big change and fast. When the input has not changed, the controller output is unchanged. Differential controller is generally used to speed up the initial response of a system, but does not minimize the error in steady state. Working differential controller is only effective in the narrow scope of the transitional period. Therefore, differential controller is never used without any other controller in a system.

Any weaknesses and strengths of each controller proportional, integral and differential can cover each other by combining all three in parallel becomes proportional integral differential controller (PID controller). Elements of the controller proportional, integral and differential individual as a whole aims to accelerate the reaction of a system, eliminate the offset and generate a large initial change. This type of controller is usually used to control the temperature and flow rate in a reactor.

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