Monday, March 1, 2010

Designing Chemical Factory. .

The main purpose of designing and building enterprise chemical plant is getting added value in economic terms of a raw material. Increased economic value is done by processing raw materials into a product that has a selling price higher so that the processing company to make a profit (profit). In factories producing basic chemical products such as urea, sulfuric acid, ethanol and the like, their quality standards simply to the composition and purity.


Product selling prices and raw material for each specific purity and fixed. For factories like this, the option to get more profits rather than to improve the quality but in a way to save production costs and increase the number of products produced per year. The number of products produced per unit of time is what is called the production capacity.

The calculation of production capacity is close to a very important aspect in the business get more profit. Of course, this calculation should be supported with an analysis of market needs careful also as already mentioned in section 1. Increasing the production capacity can be done by adding and / or modification of existing equipment in order to operate more optimally and efficiently. This modification effort requires an understanding of systems and processes processing system.

Suppose you want to preserve fish fish. You have several options how to preservation: dried, salted or diasapkan. Preservation methods are called system of processes. If you choose a system to preserve the fumigation process milkfish, hereinafter called only fumigation system. Your product is smoked fish. To make milkfish smoke, once again you come across a system selection process, using the smoke in the form of gas or liquid smoke. If you choose to use the gas fumes, you need a furnace to produce smoke and smoking room. If you choose to use liquid smoke, you need a container, a bucket for example, for soaking fish in the liquid smoke. Furnace producing smoke, smoking room and a bucket processing system. Illustrations of smoked fish is expected to strengthen the understanding of systems and processes processing system.

Production in chemical plant processes requires a variety of systems and processing systems which are arranged in a system of controlled production process. To more easily, a series of systems of production process is called process technology. In addition to market demand and availability of raw materials and utilities, as already mentioned in section 1, the performance of the process technology is also a benchmark in determining the production capacity because it can be a technological process has a minimum capacity limits that the company still make a profit.

Technological process in the form of licenses sold is usually displayed in the form of a series called the system flow diagram or block diagram. Flow diagram showing a more detailed set of processing systems and so-called flow charts. Any license which is a patented and traded license or patent for the technology design process. You may often hear the Kraft process for cheese production technology, Richard process for purifying salt, Kelloggs process for technology of powder production process, the process for the production process Faurchild window. Like the Nobel prize for scientist, a Pulitzer prize for journalism, the Kirkpatrick Award is an international award for technology designers chemical plant production processes that are considered to contribute new or breakthroughs in the world's most creative design process technology. Flow Diagram and Mass & Energy Balance

Attempt to make a block diagram of a flow chart requires the calculation of mass and energy balance. Balance of mass is the study of materials in and out and that accumulated from each system processes. Energy balance is a whole series of processes as well as studies of the amount of energy (heat) that must be supplied or removed from the system each process and overall process sequence. The development of computing technology have helped in providing a variety of software for the calculation of mass and energy balance, including Hisys and ChemCad.

The most interesting data from the mass and energy balance is the amount of each raw material and fuel needed to produce per unit of product sold, such as per kilogram or per liter. Calculation of product acquisition can be determined from the data. Obtaining meaningful, what percentage of the raw materials fed into the product. Calculation of profit per unit sold can also be determined from this data. If you want to invest capital to build the plant after the plant is found to operate within a certain time, you can estimate how many products must be made in that time with this data. In other words, you have set your production capacity.

Things that need to be considered in calculating the mass and energy balance is the use of the basic calculation in terms of process technology. Factory conduct a continuous production process (continuous) 24 hours a day 300 days a year as fertilizer plant and oil refinery plants use the basic calculation of production rate, the rate of material into and out of the system per unit time is short, such as per hour or per minute .

Use of this basis is not suitable for the operating system partaian process (batch) or a process that takes a long time in operation, such as the fermentation process. For example you could make a tape (peuyeum) 480 kg in a single process with a long 2-day fermentation process. Your calculation will be more accurate if the basic calculation using 1440 kg per week instead of 10 kg per hour, assuming 6 working days a week.

Basic use calculations also need to pay attention span of time between delivery of raw materials and product sales. Are raw materials delivered in a certain amount once a week, once a month or three months. These considerations also affect the large warehouse is needed. Pereaksian system and Separation & Purification System

The selection of a processing system units process technology is very dependent on processing system workload is known from the calculation of mass and energy balance. In general, the primary process system of a chemical plant is pereaksian process systems, which then called pereaksian system, and the system of separation & purification processes, which then called pemisahaan & purification systems. Although there is a factory which main process system consisting only of separation & purification systems just like a sugar factory and the factory salt, or just pereaksian system just like a soap factory.

Pereaksian system is characteristic of a chemical factory. The process of changing raw materials into products occurs in this system. The questions that need to be answered before designing the system is how pereaksian and stoikiometrinya equation, the temperature and pressure of what the reaction will be held, whether the material to be reacted in the solid phase, liquid or gas, whether the reaction requires a catalyst, if used catalyst phase solid or liquid, whether these reactions generate heat or require heat and how long the reaction took place.

Processing system for the system is pereaksian process reactor. There are two most popular theoretical models used in designing the reactor operating in steady state, the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and Plug Flow Reactor (PFR). The difference is that the basic assumption of the concentration of the components involved in the reaction. CSTR is a tank reactor model and assumed berpengaduk who works in a mixing tank is perfect so that the concentration of every component in the reactor for a uniform concentration of flow out of reactor. This model is typically used in homogeneous reaction in which all the raw materials and berfasa liquid catalyst, or reaction between liquid and gas with a liquid catalyst. For heterogeneous reactions, such as between raw material gas with the solid catalyst using PFR model. PFR like water from the sand filter. The catalyst is placed on a pipe then the sidelines of a catalyst such as raw materials is passed through the water between the filter sand. Assumptions used are no different concentrations of each component involved in along the direction of the radius of the pipe.

Separation and purification systems aim to be the result of pereaksian system in accordance with market demand so that the proper sale. Separation systems are also sometimes required to prepare materials for the concentration or state in accordance with the catalyst that helps the organization's reaction.

The selection of separation and purification system depends on differences in physical properties and chemical properties of each component to be separated. Physical differences that can be used to separate the components of a mixture is the difference in phase (solid, liquid or gas), differences in particle size, static electrical charge differences, differences in vapor pressure or boiling point and frozen points difference. Chemical nature of the differences that can be used to separate the components of a mixture is the solubility and reactivity levels.

Processing systems are built depends on what kind of difference to be used to separate these components. Processing systems and space equipment precipitation filters can be used to implement the process of separating solids from liquids or gases, while to separate the two insoluble liquid phase can only use the deposition. Processing system filter tool can also be used to separate the solid material with different particle sizes. Processing system separation and purification of the most common in the chemical plant is the distillation and extraction. Distillation using vapor pressure difference differences each component while the extraction using different degrees of solubility of components of one type or a mixture solvent.

The main purpose of designing and building enterprise chemical plant is getting added value in economic terms of a raw material. Increased economic value is done by processing raw materials into a product that has a selling price higher so that the processing company to make a profit (profit). In factories producing basic chemical products such as urea, sulfuric acid, ethanol and the like, their quality standards simply to the composition and purity.


Product selling prices and raw material for each specific purity and fixed. For factories like this, the option to get more profits rather than to improve the quality but in a way to save production costs and increase the number of products produced per year. The number of products produced per unit of time is what is called the production capacity.

The calculation of production capacity is close to a very important aspect in the business get more profit. Of course, this calculation should be supported with an analysis of market needs careful also as already mentioned in section 1. Increasing the production capacity can be done by adding and / or modification of existing equipment in order to operate more optimally and efficiently. This modification effort requires an understanding of systems and processes processing system.

Suppose you want to preserve fish fish. You have several options how to preservation: dried, salted or diasapkan. Preservation methods are called system of processes. If you choose a system to preserve the fumigation process milkfish, hereinafter called only fumigation system. Your product is smoked fish. To make milkfish smoke, once again you come across a system selection process, using the smoke in the form of gas or liquid smoke. If you choose to use the gas fumes, you need a furnace to produce smoke and smoking room. If you choose to use liquid smoke, you need a container, a bucket for example, for soaking fish in the liquid smoke. Furnace producing smoke, smoking room and a bucket processing system. Illustrations of smoked fish is expected to strengthen the understanding of systems and processes processing system.

Production in chemical plant processes requires a variety of systems and processing systems which are arranged in a system of controlled production process. To more easily, a series of systems of production process is called process technology. In addition to market demand and availability of raw materials and utilities, as already mentioned in section 1, the performance of the process technology is also a benchmark in determining the production capacity because it can be a technological process has a minimum capacity limits that the company still make a profit.

Technological process in the form of licenses sold is usually displayed in the form of a series called the system flow diagram or block diagram. Flow diagram showing a more detailed set of processing systems and so-called flow charts. Any license which is a patented and traded license or patent for the technology design process. You may often hear the Kraft process for cheese production technology, Richard process for purifying salt, Kelloggs process for technology of powder production process, the process for the production process Faurchild window. Like the Nobel prize for scientist, a Pulitzer prize for journalism, the Kirkpatrick Award is an international award for technology designers chemical plant production processes that are considered to contribute new or breakthroughs in the world's most creative design process technology. Flow Diagram and Mass & Energy Balance

Attempt to make a block diagram of a flow chart requires the calculation of mass and energy balance. Balance of mass is the study of materials in and out and that accumulated from each system processes. Energy balance is a whole series of processes as well as studies of the amount of energy (heat) that must be supplied or removed from the system each process and overall process sequence. The development of computing technology have helped in providing a variety of software for the calculation of mass and energy balance, including Hisys and ChemCad.

The most interesting data from the mass and energy balance is the amount of each raw material and fuel needed to produce per unit of product sold, such as per kilogram or per liter. Calculation of product acquisition can be determined from the data. Obtaining meaningful, what percentage of the raw materials fed into the product. Calculation of profit per unit sold can also be determined from this data. If you want to invest capital to build the plant after the plant is found to operate within a certain time, you can estimate how many products must be made in that time with this data. In other words, you have set your production capacity.

Things that need to be considered in calculating the mass and energy balance is the use of the basic calculation in terms of process technology. Factory conduct a continuous production process (continuous) 24 hours a day 300 days a year as fertilizer plant and oil refinery plants use the basic calculation of production rate, the rate of material into and out of the system per unit time is short, such as per hour or per minute .

Use of this basis is not suitable for the operating system partaian process (batch) or a process that takes a long time in operation, such as the fermentation process. For example you could make a tape (peuyeum) 480 kg in a single process with a long 2-day fermentation process. Your calculation will be more accurate if the basic calculation using 1440 kg per week instead of 10 kg per hour, assuming 6 working days a week.

Basic use calculations also need to pay attention span of time between delivery of raw materials and product sales. Are raw materials delivered in a certain amount once a week, once a month or three months. These considerations also affect the large warehouse is needed. Pereaksian system and Separation & Purification System

The selection of a processing system units process technology is very dependent on processing system workload is known from the calculation of mass and energy balance. In general, the primary process system of a chemical plant is pereaksian process systems, which then called pereaksian system, and the system of separation & purification processes, which then called pemisahaan & purification systems. Although there is a factory which main process system consisting only of separation & purification systems just like a sugar factory and the factory salt, or just pereaksian system just like a soap factory.

Pereaksian system is characteristic of a chemical factory. The process of changing raw materials into products occurs in this system. The questions that need to be answered before designing the system is how pereaksian and stoikiometrinya equation, the temperature and pressure of what the reaction will be held, whether the material to be reacted in the solid phase, liquid or gas, whether the reaction requires a catalyst, if used catalyst phase solid or liquid, whether these reactions generate heat or require heat and how long the reaction took place.

Processing system for the system is pereaksian process reactor. There are two most popular theoretical models used in designing the reactor operating in steady state, the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and Plug Flow Reactor (PFR). The difference is that the basic assumption of the concentration of the components involved in the reaction. CSTR is a tank reactor model and assumed berpengaduk who works in a mixing tank is perfect so that the concentration of every component in the reactor for a uniform concentration of flow out of reactor. This model is typically used in homogeneous reaction in which all the raw materials and berfasa liquid catalyst, or reaction between liquid and gas with a liquid catalyst. For heterogeneous reactions, such as between raw material gas with the solid catalyst using PFR model. PFR like water from the sand filter. The catalyst is placed on a pipe then the sidelines of a catalyst such as raw materials is passed through the water between the filter sand. Assumptions used are no different concentrations of each component involved in along the direction of the radius of the pipe.

Separation and purification systems aim to be the result of pereaksian system in accordance with market demand so that the proper sale. Separation systems are also sometimes required to prepare materials for the concentration or state in accordance with the catalyst that helps the organization's reaction.

The selection of separation and purification system depends on differences in physical properties and chemical properties of each component to be separated. Physical differences that can be used to separate the components of a mixture is the difference in phase (solid, liquid or gas), differences in particle size, static electrical charge differences, differences in vapor pressure or boiling point and frozen points difference. Chemical nature of the differences that can be used to separate the components of a mixture is the solubility and reactivity levels.

Processing systems are built depends on what kind of difference to be used to separate these components. Processing systems and space equipment precipitation filters can be used to implement the process of separating solids from liquids or gases, while to separate the two insoluble liquid phase can only use the deposition. Processing system filter tool can also be used to separate the solid material with different particle sizes. Processing system separation and purification of the most common in the chemical plant is the distillation and extraction. Distillation using vapor pressure difference differences each component while the extraction using different degrees of solubility of components of one type or a mixture solvent.

0 comments :

Post a Comment

you give times, i give you world,
if you have a website or something, please at the contents. thanks..

best regards,