Monday, March 1, 2010

Gasoline and usefulness.

Gasoline can be made in several ways, among others, namely.

1. Straight distillation of crude oil (straight run gasoline), where the quality depends on the chemical composition of the basic materials. If contains many aromatic and aromatic-napthen-naphten will produce gasoline that does not knock (anti-knocking).
2. Merengkah (cracking) of the results of heavy oil, such as gas oil and residues.
3. Merengkah (retor ming) weight of the fuel poor quality.
4. Synthesis of carbon substances low.

Gasoline is usually used as:

Motor fuel
As a motor fuel there are several properties of interest to determine whether or not these stations.
* Things to fly (dew point)
Distortion caused by the presence of gas bubbles inside the carburetor of a motor that is caused by the presence of too high levels of fractions of a very mild in gasoline. This is mainly caused by too much propane and butane from gasoline. Bubbles of gas bubbles contained in certain circumstances can close the holes are narrow and perecik fuel will stop.

* Tendency knocking (knocking)
When the ratio of pressure from the motor is relatively high, the combustion can cause detonation (explosion) inside the cylinder, so that:

- The emergence of knock noise
- Power reduced
- Causing damage to the engine

Branched chain hydrocarbons and aromatic greatly reduces the orientation of the fuel that causes knocking, for example 2,2,4-Trimethyl Pentane (iso-octane) is anti-knock fuels. High price of octane number the better result against knocking. Modern engines require automibil fuel with octane numbers between 90 and 140, the higher the ratio of stress (compression) then needed a high octane number as well. Octane numbers can be increased by adding some substances, such as fefraefyl lead (TEL) and lead feframefyl (l-MI) was added to the gasoline in small quantities because of concern when added too much effects of lead on the environment. TEL (Pb (C2Hs) 4) made of lead mixed with sodium and ethics! Chloride, the reaction:

Pb + 4Na + 4C2H5Cl -> Pb (C2H5) 4 + 4 NaCl

* State "resin" and the storage stability
Damar can form because of the alkene-alkene having one double bond that has the potential to form berpolirherisasi larger molekulmolekul. Resin formation was accelerated by the presence of oxygen in the air, like peroksiden. Losses caused by the formation of this resin include:

* This material can be attached to several places in the motor, among other channels and the polar gas that can cause damage to the motor.
* Reduce the octane number due to the loss of an alkene-alkene of gasoline.

The formation of resin can be prevented by the addition of these compounds and aminophenol poliphenol types, such as hydroquinone and p-aminophen.

* Freezing point
If the gasoline is a high percentage of aromatic-specific aromatic then the cooling time, it will crystallize aromatics lead to the closing of the holes in the carburetor spray alai. Freezing point is mainly affected by benzene (freezing point of pure benzene ± 5 º C).

* Levels of sulfur
Losses caused when sulfur levels are too high, are:
- Providing unpleasant odor of gases produced.
- Result in corrosion of the parts.

Gasoline can be made in several ways, among others, namely.

1. Straight distillation of crude oil (straight run gasoline), where the quality depends on the chemical composition of the basic materials. If contains many aromatic and aromatic-napthen-naphten will produce gasoline that does not knock (anti-knocking).
2. Merengkah (cracking) of the results of heavy oil, such as gas oil and residues.
3. Merengkah (retor ming) weight of the fuel poor quality.
4. Synthesis of carbon substances low.

Gasoline is usually used as:

Motor fuel
As a motor fuel there are several properties of interest to determine whether or not these stations.
* Things to fly (dew point)
Distortion caused by the presence of gas bubbles inside the carburetor of a motor that is caused by the presence of too high levels of fractions of a very mild in gasoline. This is mainly caused by too much propane and butane from gasoline. Bubbles of gas bubbles contained in certain circumstances can close the holes are narrow and perecik fuel will stop.

* Tendency knocking (knocking)
When the ratio of pressure from the motor is relatively high, the combustion can cause detonation (explosion) inside the cylinder, so that:

- The emergence of knock noise
- Power reduced
- Causing damage to the engine

Branched chain hydrocarbons and aromatic greatly reduces the orientation of the fuel that causes knocking, for example 2,2,4-Trimethyl Pentane (iso-octane) is anti-knock fuels. High price of octane number the better result against knocking. Modern engines require automibil fuel with octane numbers between 90 and 140, the higher the ratio of stress (compression) then needed a high octane number as well. Octane numbers can be increased by adding some substances, such as fefraefyl lead (TEL) and lead feframefyl (l-MI) was added to the gasoline in small quantities because of concern when added too much effects of lead on the environment. TEL (Pb (C2Hs) 4) made of lead mixed with sodium and ethics! Chloride, the reaction:

Pb + 4Na + 4C2H5Cl -> Pb (C2H5) 4 + 4 NaCl

* State "resin" and the storage stability
Damar can form because of the alkene-alkene having one double bond that has the potential to form berpolirherisasi larger molekulmolekul. Resin formation was accelerated by the presence of oxygen in the air, like peroksiden. Losses caused by the formation of this resin include:

* This material can be attached to several places in the motor, among other channels and the polar gas that can cause damage to the motor.
* Reduce the octane number due to the loss of an alkene-alkene of gasoline.

The formation of resin can be prevented by the addition of these compounds and aminophenol poliphenol types, such as hydroquinone and p-aminophen.

* Freezing point
If the gasoline is a high percentage of aromatic-specific aromatic then the cooling time, it will crystallize aromatics lead to the closing of the holes in the carburetor spray alai. Freezing point is mainly affected by benzene (freezing point of pure benzene ± 5 º C).

* Levels of sulfur
Losses caused when sulfur levels are too high, are:
- Providing unpleasant odor of gases produced.
- Result in corrosion of the parts.

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