Tuesday, March 2, 2010

hydrogen.

History (Greek hydro = water, and genes = formation). Hydrogen has been used for years before finally declared as a unique element by Cavendish in 1776. Called hydrogen by Lavoisier, hydrogen is the element most of all the elements in the universe. The elements of weight at first formed from hydrogen atoms, or from other elements that were originally made from hydrogen atoms.

Source
Hydrogen is estimated to make up more than 90% of the atoms in the universe (equal to three-quarters of the mass of the universe). This element is found in the stars and plays an important role in providing the energy source of the universe through the proton-proton reaction and carbon-nitrogen cycle. The process of fusion of hydrogen atoms into helium in the amount of energy the sun produces a very large.

Hydrogen can be prepared in various ways:
* The steam from the heated carbon element
* Decomposition of several types of hydrocarbons to heat energy
* The reactions of sodium or potassium hydroxide on aluminum
* Electrolysis of water
* Shift acids by certain metals

Hydrogen in liquid form is very important for low temperature research (Cryogenics) and the study of superconductivity as melting point is only 20 degrees above 0 Kelvin. Tritium (isotopes of hydrogen one) can be easily produced in nuclear reactors and is used in the production of hydrogen bombs.

Hydrogen is the main component of Jupiter and the planets other gas giants. Because of the tremendous pressure in these planets, the solid form of molecular hydrogen is converted into metallic hydrogen.

In the year 1973, there were some Russian scientists are experimenting to produce metallic hydrogen at a pressure of 2.8 megabar. At the transition point, the weight type changed from 1:08 to 1.3 gram/cm3. One year earlier in Livermore, California, a group of scientists also reported a similar experiment where they observed a phenomenon that occurs in the pressure-volume point centered at 2 megabar. Some predictions suggest that metallic hydrogen may be metastable. Another predicts that hydrogen may be a superconductor at room temperature.

Compounds
Although hydrogen is the gas thing, we very rarely found in Earth's atmosphere. Hydrogen gas is very mild, if not combined with other elements, will collide with other elements and layers terkeluarkan from the atmosphere. On Earth, hydrogen is usually found as a compound (water) in which the atoms linked by oxygen atoms. Hydrogen atoms can also be found in plants, petroleum, coal, and others. As an independent element, its concentration in the atmosphere is very small (1 ppm by volume). As the lightest gases, hydrogen combines with other elements? sometimes explosively? to form various compounds.

Usability
Hydrogen is widely used to bind nitrogen with other elements in the Haber process (producing ammonia) and to process fats and oils hydrogenation. Hydrogen is also used in significant amounts in the production of methanol, the hydrogen dealkilasi (hydrodealkylation), hydrocracking catalyst, and hydrogen sulphurising agents. Other uses include as a rocket fuel, producing hydrochloric acid, reducing the ore, iron ore and as a filler gas balloons.

1 lift cubic feet of hydrogen gas around 0:07 lbf at a temperature of 0 degrees Celsius and the air pressure of 760 mm Hg. The batteries on hydrogen (Hydrogen fuel cell) is a new technology being developed, in which electric power in large quantities can be produced from hydrogen gas. New factories can be built close to the sea to conduct sea water electrolysis process to produce hydrogen. Pollution-free gas is then able to flow through the pipes and distributed to residential areas and major cities. Hydrogen can replace other natural gas, gasoline, agents in the process of metallurgy and chemical processes (refinery), and convert the waste into methane and ethylene. Constraints that have to realize that dream is still a lot. Among public approval, a large capital investment and the price of fuel is still far more expensive than other fuels now.

Shape
In normal circumstances, hydrogen gas is a mixture of two molecules, called ortho-and para-hydrogen, which is distinguished by the spin of electrons and nuclei. Normal hydrogen at room temperature consisted of 25% parahydrogen and 75% ortho-hydrogen. Ortho form can not be prepared in pure form. Because the two forms differ in energy, kebendaannya properties were also different. Melting points and boiling parahydrogen about 0.1 degrees Celsius lower than normal hydrogen.

Isotopes
Normal hydrogen isotope called Protium. Other isotopes are deuterium (one proton and one neutron) and Tritium (one proton and two neutrons). Hydrogen is the only element-isotopes isotope has its own name. Deuterium and Tritium is used both as fuel for nuclear fusion reactors. One atom of deuterium was found at approximately 6000 hydrogen atoms.

Deuterium is also used to slow neutrons. Tritium atoms are also present but in lesser numbers. Tritium can also be easily produced in nuclear reactors and used in the production of hydrogen bombs (fusion). Hydrogen gas is also used as a radioactive agent to make paint a glowing light.

History (Greek hydro = water, and genes = formation). Hydrogen has been used for years before finally declared as a unique element by Cavendish in 1776. Called hydrogen by Lavoisier, hydrogen is the element most of all the elements in the universe. The elements of weight at first formed from hydrogen atoms, or from other elements that were originally made from hydrogen atoms.

Source
Hydrogen is estimated to make up more than 90% of the atoms in the universe (equal to three-quarters of the mass of the universe). This element is found in the stars and plays an important role in providing the energy source of the universe through the proton-proton reaction and carbon-nitrogen cycle. The process of fusion of hydrogen atoms into helium in the amount of energy the sun produces a very large.

Hydrogen can be prepared in various ways:
* The steam from the heated carbon element
* Decomposition of several types of hydrocarbons to heat energy
* The reactions of sodium or potassium hydroxide on aluminum
* Electrolysis of water
* Shift acids by certain metals

Hydrogen in liquid form is very important for low temperature research (Cryogenics) and the study of superconductivity as melting point is only 20 degrees above 0 Kelvin. Tritium (isotopes of hydrogen one) can be easily produced in nuclear reactors and is used in the production of hydrogen bombs.

Hydrogen is the main component of Jupiter and the planets other gas giants. Because of the tremendous pressure in these planets, the solid form of molecular hydrogen is converted into metallic hydrogen.

In the year 1973, there were some Russian scientists are experimenting to produce metallic hydrogen at a pressure of 2.8 megabar. At the transition point, the weight type changed from 1:08 to 1.3 gram/cm3. One year earlier in Livermore, California, a group of scientists also reported a similar experiment where they observed a phenomenon that occurs in the pressure-volume point centered at 2 megabar. Some predictions suggest that metallic hydrogen may be metastable. Another predicts that hydrogen may be a superconductor at room temperature.

Compounds
Although hydrogen is the gas thing, we very rarely found in Earth's atmosphere. Hydrogen gas is very mild, if not combined with other elements, will collide with other elements and layers terkeluarkan from the atmosphere. On Earth, hydrogen is usually found as a compound (water) in which the atoms linked by oxygen atoms. Hydrogen atoms can also be found in plants, petroleum, coal, and others. As an independent element, its concentration in the atmosphere is very small (1 ppm by volume). As the lightest gases, hydrogen combines with other elements? sometimes explosively? to form various compounds.

Usability
Hydrogen is widely used to bind nitrogen with other elements in the Haber process (producing ammonia) and to process fats and oils hydrogenation. Hydrogen is also used in significant amounts in the production of methanol, the hydrogen dealkilasi (hydrodealkylation), hydrocracking catalyst, and hydrogen sulphurising agents. Other uses include as a rocket fuel, producing hydrochloric acid, reducing the ore, iron ore and as a filler gas balloons.

1 lift cubic feet of hydrogen gas around 0:07 lbf at a temperature of 0 degrees Celsius and the air pressure of 760 mm Hg. The batteries on hydrogen (Hydrogen fuel cell) is a new technology being developed, in which electric power in large quantities can be produced from hydrogen gas. New factories can be built close to the sea to conduct sea water electrolysis process to produce hydrogen. Pollution-free gas is then able to flow through the pipes and distributed to residential areas and major cities. Hydrogen can replace other natural gas, gasoline, agents in the process of metallurgy and chemical processes (refinery), and convert the waste into methane and ethylene. Constraints that have to realize that dream is still a lot. Among public approval, a large capital investment and the price of fuel is still far more expensive than other fuels now.

Shape
In normal circumstances, hydrogen gas is a mixture of two molecules, called ortho-and para-hydrogen, which is distinguished by the spin of electrons and nuclei. Normal hydrogen at room temperature consisted of 25% parahydrogen and 75% ortho-hydrogen. Ortho form can not be prepared in pure form. Because the two forms differ in energy, kebendaannya properties were also different. Melting points and boiling parahydrogen about 0.1 degrees Celsius lower than normal hydrogen.

Isotopes
Normal hydrogen isotope called Protium. Other isotopes are deuterium (one proton and one neutron) and Tritium (one proton and two neutrons). Hydrogen is the only element-isotopes isotope has its own name. Deuterium and Tritium is used both as fuel for nuclear fusion reactors. One atom of deuterium was found at approximately 6000 hydrogen atoms.

Deuterium is also used to slow neutrons. Tritium atoms are also present but in lesser numbers. Tritium can also be easily produced in nuclear reactors and used in the production of hydrogen bombs (fusion). Hydrogen gas is also used as a radioactive agent to make paint a glowing light.

0 comments :

Post a Comment

you give times, i give you world,
if you have a website or something, please at the contents. thanks..

best regards,