Tuesday, March 9, 2010

synthesis of sugar.

disclose the synthesis of sugar in the surviving animals.
The United States studies have used 'click chemistry' to attach chemical tags on complex sugar molecules on the cell - mouse cells are still alive, which allows the synthesis of sugar - glycans - inside the cells - the cells to be tracked. The ability to monitor the expression of glycan on live animals will give scientists a new view of the role which perankan sugar in most cellular processes such as embryonic development and spread of cancer.

Glycans found in two cells - the cells and on the surface and play a key role in many processes, including signaling between and within cells - cells. It is known, for example, that the cells - cancer cells that seemed to spread to other body parts have changed the pattern of surface glycans.

Some of the latest technology in detecting glycans in principle relies on the development of antibodies against specific glycans, or the sugars attached to proteins called lectins. However, both methods have limitations and are not suitable for use on live animals. The development of antibodies, an example, which requires a glycan isolated and cleaned - something that is not always possible. Lectins are often toxic.

Now, Pamela Chang and his colleagues at the University of California, at Berkeley, recruited click chemistry to provide a new approach. Click chemistry involves the specific reaction and rapid of the two molecules 'high energy' under mild conditions.

The researchers introduced a synthetic marker sialic acid - a key component of most glycans - into white mice. These molecules contain an azide group which is not known by these cells, the sialic acid facilitate 'false' to work together into tersintesiskan latest glycans. This team then exposed the cells - the cells into a strain, bercincinkan molecules included eight members of a cyclooctyne. This is 'to - click - it' with the azide. Cyclooctyne himself has attached to a peptide, by entering the Flag, which can be detected by testing standard biological assay.

Click chemistry on the copper metal-free materials on white mice.
'In this way we can monitor the pattern of expression of glycans on cell and tissue types - different cells, "said Chang. He showed that the metal flag penggujian level requires some cells to be extracted for analyzing materials. 'What do we do next ingimn is cyclooctynes functionalize directly with an imaging agent that we can imagine glycan expression patterns directly. "

Hermen Overkleeft, a professor of bio-organic synthesis at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands, he said, 'By making the two molecules react together both effectively and selectively in living animals is a challenging one, but in the end is the most precious thing in the goal of research in biology chemical. "Overkleeft said that by demonstrating these chemical reactions is possible on white mice with no obvious toxic effects that provide a guide in developing a similar technology. 'I am very excited to see where this research would be,' added Overkleeft.

disclose the synthesis of sugar in the surviving animals.
The United States studies have used 'click chemistry' to attach chemical tags on complex sugar molecules on the cell - mouse cells are still alive, which allows the synthesis of sugar - glycans - inside the cells - the cells to be tracked. The ability to monitor the expression of glycan on live animals will give scientists a new view of the role which perankan sugar in most cellular processes such as embryonic development and spread of cancer.

Glycans found in two cells - the cells and on the surface and play a key role in many processes, including signaling between and within cells - cells. It is known, for example, that the cells - cancer cells that seemed to spread to other body parts have changed the pattern of surface glycans.

Some of the latest technology in detecting glycans in principle relies on the development of antibodies against specific glycans, or the sugars attached to proteins called lectins. However, both methods have limitations and are not suitable for use on live animals. The development of antibodies, an example, which requires a glycan isolated and cleaned - something that is not always possible. Lectins are often toxic.

Now, Pamela Chang and his colleagues at the University of California, at Berkeley, recruited click chemistry to provide a new approach. Click chemistry involves the specific reaction and rapid of the two molecules 'high energy' under mild conditions.

The researchers introduced a synthetic marker sialic acid - a key component of most glycans - into white mice. These molecules contain an azide group which is not known by these cells, the sialic acid facilitate 'false' to work together into tersintesiskan latest glycans. This team then exposed the cells - the cells into a strain, bercincinkan molecules included eight members of a cyclooctyne. This is 'to - click - it' with the azide. Cyclooctyne himself has attached to a peptide, by entering the Flag, which can be detected by testing standard biological assay.

Click chemistry on the copper metal-free materials on white mice.
'In this way we can monitor the pattern of expression of glycans on cell and tissue types - different cells, "said Chang. He showed that the metal flag penggujian level requires some cells to be extracted for analyzing materials. 'What do we do next ingimn is cyclooctynes functionalize directly with an imaging agent that we can imagine glycan expression patterns directly. "

Hermen Overkleeft, a professor of bio-organic synthesis at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands, he said, 'By making the two molecules react together both effectively and selectively in living animals is a challenging one, but in the end is the most precious thing in the goal of research in biology chemical. "Overkleeft said that by demonstrating these chemical reactions is possible on white mice with no obvious toxic effects that provide a guide in developing a similar technology. 'I am very excited to see where this research would be,' added Overkleeft.

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