Thursday, January 21, 2010

Ion exchanger.

River water and ground water at first accommodated in existing attraction that has a pump to flow into the mixing tub and given as flokulan alum. Water that has been poured into the tub alum to give time penggumpal flocculation impurities in the water. Water with impurities Flok-Flok pengendap poured into the tub to Flok-formed Flok down and separate from the water. Water coming out of the tub pengendap cleared but there were still floating impurities, therefore the water and then filtered with a filter to separate these particles.

Filtered water still contains dissolved substances that cause hardness. To remove dissolved impurities which are used substances that can absorb the ions in the solution. With the ion exchanger, water is expected to be used in the process has a hardness 0 even as little as possible to avoid crust.

Ion Exchange Equipment Condition

The process of removal of ions dissolved in water may involve a cation exchanger (cation exchanger) resin in the form of Na (R-Na). Process-sodium-ion exchange is the process most widely used to soften water. In this softening process, calcium ions and magnesium are removed from the high water berkesadahan by cation exchange with sodium. When the exchange resin was finished removing most of the 346 calcium and magnesium ions to its capacity limit, the resin was then regenerated back into the sodium form using a saline solution with a pH between 6 and 8. Polystyrene resin exchange capacity of 650 kg/m3 when the amount diregenerasikan with 250 g of salt per kilogram of hardness is removed.



To exchange cations or hydrogen natirum cycle typically used synthetic resin, styrene-sulfonat type divinilbenzena. These resins are very stable at high temperatures (up to 150 oC) and in pH between 0 and 14. In addition, this material is very resistant to oxidation. Total cation exchange capacity can reach 925 kg per cubic meter CaCO3 ion exchange with hydrogen cycle and up to 810 kg per cubic meter CaCO3 cycle in practice natrium.Namun operating capacity is not that high.

Softening of water in the reaction below, the symbol R indicates radical cation exchanger. These resins remove ions Ca 2 + and Mg 2 + cause hardness.
Reaction as follows:
CaCO3 + 2 R-Na -> R2-Ca + Na2C03
MgCO3 + 2 R-Na-> R2-Mg + Na2C03

When the furnace is a cation exchanger has been its ability to produce soft water, softener unit was stopped; then laundered through (backwash) to clean and classify the resin particles in the furnace was again: and then regenerated with a solution of common salt (sodium chloride) to remove calcium and magnesium in the form of soluble chloride and cation exchanger and returns it to the form of sodium.

Furnace was washed again to clean it from the side that can dissolve
and the excess salt; then returned to operation to further soften the water. Regeneration reaction using water gararn (NaCI) can be described as follows:
R2-Ca + 2 NaCI -> 2 R-Na + CaCl2
R2-Mg + 2 NaCI -> R-Na + MgCl2

While the anion content is not removed by the anion exchanger (anion exchanger). If the content is high anion, blowdown is usually done most of the water away and replaced with water-pollutant impurities kondensat.Selain above, there are various kinds of gases dissolved in water (C02, CF4, 02, H2S). Gas is eliminated by deaerator before entering the boiler. Deaerator works by heating the boiler water so that the gases can exit.

River water and ground water at first accommodated in existing attraction that has a pump to flow into the mixing tub and given as flokulan alum. Water that has been poured into the tub alum to give time penggumpal flocculation impurities in the water. Water with impurities Flok-Flok pengendap poured into the tub to Flok-formed Flok down and separate from the water. Water coming out of the tub pengendap cleared but there were still floating impurities, therefore the water and then filtered with a filter to separate these particles.

Filtered water still contains dissolved substances that cause hardness. To remove dissolved impurities which are used substances that can absorb the ions in the solution. With the ion exchanger, water is expected to be used in the process has a hardness 0 even as little as possible to avoid crust.

Ion Exchange Equipment Condition

The process of removal of ions dissolved in water may involve a cation exchanger (cation exchanger) resin in the form of Na (R-Na). Process-sodium-ion exchange is the process most widely used to soften water. In this softening process, calcium ions and magnesium are removed from the high water berkesadahan by cation exchange with sodium. When the exchange resin was finished removing most of the 346 calcium and magnesium ions to its capacity limit, the resin was then regenerated back into the sodium form using a saline solution with a pH between 6 and 8. Polystyrene resin exchange capacity of 650 kg/m3 when the amount diregenerasikan with 250 g of salt per kilogram of hardness is removed.



To exchange cations or hydrogen natirum cycle typically used synthetic resin, styrene-sulfonat type divinilbenzena. These resins are very stable at high temperatures (up to 150 oC) and in pH between 0 and 14. In addition, this material is very resistant to oxidation. Total cation exchange capacity can reach 925 kg per cubic meter CaCO3 ion exchange with hydrogen cycle and up to 810 kg per cubic meter CaCO3 cycle in practice natrium.Namun operating capacity is not that high.

Softening of water in the reaction below, the symbol R indicates radical cation exchanger. These resins remove ions Ca 2 + and Mg 2 + cause hardness.
Reaction as follows:
CaCO3 + 2 R-Na -> R2-Ca + Na2C03
MgCO3 + 2 R-Na-> R2-Mg + Na2C03

When the furnace is a cation exchanger has been its ability to produce soft water, softener unit was stopped; then laundered through (backwash) to clean and classify the resin particles in the furnace was again: and then regenerated with a solution of common salt (sodium chloride) to remove calcium and magnesium in the form of soluble chloride and cation exchanger and returns it to the form of sodium.

Furnace was washed again to clean it from the side that can dissolve
and the excess salt; then returned to operation to further soften the water. Regeneration reaction using water gararn (NaCI) can be described as follows:
R2-Ca + 2 NaCI -> 2 R-Na + CaCl2
R2-Mg + 2 NaCI -> R-Na + MgCl2

While the anion content is not removed by the anion exchanger (anion exchanger). If the content is high anion, blowdown is usually done most of the water away and replaced with water-pollutant impurities kondensat.Selain above, there are various kinds of gases dissolved in water (C02, CF4, 02, H2S). Gas is eliminated by deaerator before entering the boiler. Deaerator works by heating the boiler water so that the gases can exit.

0 comments :

Post a Comment

you give times, i give you world,
if you have a website or something, please at the contents. thanks..

best regards,