Thursday, January 21, 2010

polymers.

Polymer properties.
Thermal properties.
The nature of the polymer to heat there is to be soft when heated and hard when cooled, the polymer is called termoplas.
For example: plastic used for bags and plastic bottles.
While polymer becomes hard when heated called thermoset, for example melamine

Flexibility nature.
Polymers would have different flexibility with synthetic polymers. Natural polymers generally rather difficult to be printed at will, whereas the synthetic polymer molds made it easier to produce a particular shape. Rubber would be easier mengembangdan lost after too long kekenyalannya taxable gasoline or oil.

Resistance to microorganisms.
Natural polymers such as wool, silk, or cellulose can not stand on microorganisms or caterpillar (termites). While synthetic polymers are more resistant to microorganisms or worm.

Other properties.
Other polymer properties depend pemakainnnya for packaging or industrial equipment. For the purpose of packaging should be noted:
* Toxicity
* Power resistant to water, oil or hot
* Power through the air (oxygen)
* Flexibility
* Transparent

Usability And Against Environmental Impact Polymers.
In everyday life many of the items used are synthetic polymers ranging from plastic bags for shopping, plastic food and beverage packaging, plastic packaging, electrical equipment, tools, household appliances and electronic equipment. Each of our purchases in small quantities, for example diwarung, always we will have plastic wrap and plastic bags (keresek).

These items are synthetic polymers that can not be broken down by microorganisms. As a result, these items will accumulate in the form of waste that can not be decomposed. Or clogged drains causing flooding. Rubbish synthetic polymers do not burn, because it would produce dioxin compounds. Dioxin is a compound of highly toxic gases and carcinogenic (causing cancer).

Vinyl chloride plastic is not harmful, but the vinyl chloride monomer is very toxic and carcinogenic causing birth defects. Plastics are used as food wrappers, if exposed to heat will decompose monomernya concern and will mengontamiasi food.

To reduce plastic pollution:
1. Reduce use of plastic
2. Plastic garbage must be separated by organic waste, which can be recycled.
3. Do not throw plastic garbage carelessly.
4. Do not burn plastic waste.

To avoid the danger of poisoning due to the use of plastic:
1. Use a food packaging more secure, such as glass.
2. Use of smell, if the food / plastic smell minumam not used.

Condensation polymerization
In this condensation polymerization, in addition to producing polymer compounds also produce other substances that simple molecular structures (small).

Monomer + monomer + ... .. → Polymer + other substances

Nylon formation (synthesis)
Nylon manufacture of monomers heksanadionat acid (Adipic acid) with 1,6-diamino hexane. The reaction is a carboxylic group (-COOH) reacts with the amino group (-NH2) through a peptide bond (HNCO) and nylon and generate water molecules.

The formation of protein (natural)
Protein composed of D amino acids as monomers. Formation such as the nylon is the reaction of carboxylic groups (-COOH) with the amino group (-NH2) through a peptide bond (HNCO) with a protein and water.

Polymer Characterization
Characterization of polymers is based on:
1. Type of monomer, whether the same or different monomernya
2. Composition of monomer unit, whether organized or not
3. Polymer structure, whether straight, branched or network (crosslink).
Of these factors the polymer are classified into:

Homopolimer
This polymer-monomer terbenuk of similar monomers.

M + M + .... → - [M-M-M-M] --

Monomer Polymer
Copolymers
These polymers formed from the monomer-monomer is a different kind. And composition of monomers joined together.

Copolymers is further subdivided into:
Statistical copolymers: copolymer with a monomer composition of irregular form.

- [A - B - B - A - A - A - B - A - A - B - B - B] --

Block copolymers: composition of monomers that form a regular basis with a certain amount.

- [A - A - B - B - A - A - B - B - A - A - B - B] --

Alternating copolymers: composition of monomers alternately formed.

- [A - B - A - B - A - B - A - B - A - B - A - B] --

Branched copolymers: composition of monomers which is a branch.

Polymer properties.
Thermal properties.
The nature of the polymer to heat there is to be soft when heated and hard when cooled, the polymer is called termoplas.
For example: plastic used for bags and plastic bottles.
While polymer becomes hard when heated called thermoset, for example melamine

Flexibility nature.
Polymers would have different flexibility with synthetic polymers. Natural polymers generally rather difficult to be printed at will, whereas the synthetic polymer molds made it easier to produce a particular shape. Rubber would be easier mengembangdan lost after too long kekenyalannya taxable gasoline or oil.

Resistance to microorganisms.
Natural polymers such as wool, silk, or cellulose can not stand on microorganisms or caterpillar (termites). While synthetic polymers are more resistant to microorganisms or worm.

Other properties.
Other polymer properties depend pemakainnnya for packaging or industrial equipment. For the purpose of packaging should be noted:
* Toxicity
* Power resistant to water, oil or hot
* Power through the air (oxygen)
* Flexibility
* Transparent

Usability And Against Environmental Impact Polymers.
In everyday life many of the items used are synthetic polymers ranging from plastic bags for shopping, plastic food and beverage packaging, plastic packaging, electrical equipment, tools, household appliances and electronic equipment. Each of our purchases in small quantities, for example diwarung, always we will have plastic wrap and plastic bags (keresek).

These items are synthetic polymers that can not be broken down by microorganisms. As a result, these items will accumulate in the form of waste that can not be decomposed. Or clogged drains causing flooding. Rubbish synthetic polymers do not burn, because it would produce dioxin compounds. Dioxin is a compound of highly toxic gases and carcinogenic (causing cancer).

Vinyl chloride plastic is not harmful, but the vinyl chloride monomer is very toxic and carcinogenic causing birth defects. Plastics are used as food wrappers, if exposed to heat will decompose monomernya concern and will mengontamiasi food.

To reduce plastic pollution:
1. Reduce use of plastic
2. Plastic garbage must be separated by organic waste, which can be recycled.
3. Do not throw plastic garbage carelessly.
4. Do not burn plastic waste.

To avoid the danger of poisoning due to the use of plastic:
1. Use a food packaging more secure, such as glass.
2. Use of smell, if the food / plastic smell minumam not used.

Condensation polymerization
In this condensation polymerization, in addition to producing polymer compounds also produce other substances that simple molecular structures (small).

Monomer + monomer + ... .. → Polymer + other substances

Nylon formation (synthesis)
Nylon manufacture of monomers heksanadionat acid (Adipic acid) with 1,6-diamino hexane. The reaction is a carboxylic group (-COOH) reacts with the amino group (-NH2) through a peptide bond (HNCO) and nylon and generate water molecules.

The formation of protein (natural)
Protein composed of D amino acids as monomers. Formation such as the nylon is the reaction of carboxylic groups (-COOH) with the amino group (-NH2) through a peptide bond (HNCO) with a protein and water.

Polymer Characterization
Characterization of polymers is based on:
1. Type of monomer, whether the same or different monomernya
2. Composition of monomer unit, whether organized or not
3. Polymer structure, whether straight, branched or network (crosslink).
Of these factors the polymer are classified into:

Homopolimer
This polymer-monomer terbenuk of similar monomers.

M + M + .... → - [M-M-M-M] --

Monomer Polymer
Copolymers
These polymers formed from the monomer-monomer is a different kind. And composition of monomers joined together.

Copolymers is further subdivided into:
Statistical copolymers: copolymer with a monomer composition of irregular form.

- [A - B - B - A - A - A - B - A - A - B - B - B] --

Block copolymers: composition of monomers that form a regular basis with a certain amount.

- [A - A - B - B - A - A - B - B - A - A - B - B] --

Alternating copolymers: composition of monomers alternately formed.

- [A - B - A - B - A - B - A - B - A - B - A - B] --

Branched copolymers: composition of monomers which is a branch.

2 comments :

  1. MathildeHayward said...

    Custom makes all things easy~~加油哦.........................

  2. all about you want said...

    yes you right, the Custom makes all things easy, but sometimes, in the real world we needs to use the costum to explained what we have.

Post a Comment

you give times, i give you world,
if you have a website or something, please at the contents. thanks..

best regards,