Monday, March 1, 2010

Crude Oil

Degradation of Crude Oil via the "Hands" Microorganisms.


Petroleum is formed as a result of the end of the decomposition of organic material (cells and tissues of animals / plants, sea) that accumulated over millions of years in the ground, either on land or any area in the offshore area. This indicates that oil is a natural resource that can not be updated. Petroleum formation is very slow, therefore it needs to savings in its use.

In Indonesia, there are a lot of oil in the northern part of Java Island, the eastern part of Kalimantan and Sumatra, the head of birds of Papua, and the eastern part of Seram. Petroleum is also found off the coast of east Java and Kalimantan.

Crude oil (just out of the exploration wells) contains thousands of different chemicals in the form of gas, liquid or solid. The main ingredients are contained in the crude oil is aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Containing petroleum nitrogen compounds between 0-0,5%, 0-6% sulfur, and oxygen 0-3,5%. There are at least four series of hydrocarbons contained in petroleum, which is a series of n-paraffin (n-alkanes) which consists of methane (CH4) to the asphalt with a carbon atom (C) more than 25 in its chain, iso-paraffin series (isoalkana ) that there is only a little in oil, series neptena (cycloalkanes), which is the second largest component after the n-alkanes, and a series of aromatic (benzenoid).

The composition of hydrocarbons in petroleum are not the same, depending on the source of the oil producers. For example, American petroleum is the main component of saturated hydrocarbons, are dug in Russia many contain cyclic hydrocarbons, while in Indonesia there are many compounds containing aromatic and belerangnya very low levels.

Based oil boiling point can be divided into nine fractions. The separation is done through a process of distillation.

Factions Table petroleum
Problems occur when the petroleum products that bring people dimanfaatkann unwanted effects for the man himself or for the environment. An example is plastic petroleum products, which cause environmental pollution problems due to difficult degraded (takes a long time to destroy it). Not to mention the danger of oil spills in large numbers at sea, as happened in March 1989 in the Prince William Sound, Alaska (11 million gallons of crude oil from super tankers Valdex Exxon spilled into the sea) which caused heavy damage to marine ecosystems. Even according to the records, the costs required to clean up oil spills is expected to reach 1.5 billion dollars in the United States.

Therefore, action needs to be more effective and efficient in dealing with the waste generated by petroleum products. One of the quickest method is by oil degradation using microorganisms or often called biodegradation.

Oil Decomposition
Degradation of petroleum can be done by using microorganisms such as bacteria, some yeasts, mushrooms, sianobakteria, and blue algae. These microorganisms capable of describing the components of petroleum for its ability to oxidize hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons make as electron donor. These microorganisms participate in oil spill cleanup with oil oxidizes into carbon dioxide (CO2). For example, petroleum pendegradasi bacteria will produce bioproduk fatty acids, gas, surfactant, and biopolimer which can increase porosity and permeability of reservoir rocks and carbonate formations klastik when this bacterium elaborate oil.

In the oil there are two kinds of components that are divided based on ability to describe microorganisms, namely petroleum components are easily broken down by microorganisms and components that are difficult degraded by microorganisms.

Petroleum components that easily degraded by bacteria is the largest component in the oil or to dominate, namely alkanes which are more soluble in water and diffused into the bacterial cell membrane. The number of bacteria that degrade these components is relatively large because the substrates are abundant in petroleum. Bacterial isolates pendegradasi oil component is usually a normal alkane oxidizing.

Petroleum components that are difficult degraded component numbers are smaller than the easily degraded components. This causes bekteri pendegradasi this component amounted to less and grow more slowly due to competition from pendegradasi alkanes with more substrate. Isolation of bacteria usually use oil component remaining after the full growth of bacteria pendegradasi petroleum components that easily degraded.

Hydrocarbons are degraded types of microbes
1. Hydrocarbon Aliphatic compound
Microorganisms pedegradasi straight chain hydrocarbons in oil are relatively small compared pendegradasi microbial aromatic hydrocarbons. Among these are Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, certain yeasts, and fungi. These microorganisms use hydrocarbons for growth. The use of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons is a process of aerobic (with oxygen). Without O2, hydrocarbons are not degraded by microbes (the exception is the sulfate reducing bacteria).
Step pendegradasian saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons by microorganisms involves oxidation of molecular (O2) as a source of reactants and one oxygen atom incorporation into the hydrocarbon oxidized.

2. Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Many of these compounds are used as electron donor by aerobic microorganisms such as bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Metabolism of these compounds by the bacteria begins with the formation of catechol or Protocatechuate or compounds structurally related to these compounds. Both these compounds are further degraded to compounds that can enter the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle), the succinate, acetyl CoA, and pyruvate.
Factors Delimiter biodegradation
The ability of cells of microorganisms to continue its growth until oil degraded completely dependent on oxygen supply is sufficient and nitrogen as a source of nutrients. A scientist named Dr.. D. R. Boone found that the nitrogen remains the nutrient most important for the degradation of fuel. Also active microorganisms pendegradasi hydrocarbons is also influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature and pH. Environmental conditions are not suitable causing microbes are not actively working degrade petroleum. For example, the addition of nutrient inorganic such as phosphorus and nitrogen to the area of oil increase the speed Bioremediation significantly.

Degradation of Crude Oil via the "Hands" Microorganisms.


Petroleum is formed as a result of the end of the decomposition of organic material (cells and tissues of animals / plants, sea) that accumulated over millions of years in the ground, either on land or any area in the offshore area. This indicates that oil is a natural resource that can not be updated. Petroleum formation is very slow, therefore it needs to savings in its use.

In Indonesia, there are a lot of oil in the northern part of Java Island, the eastern part of Kalimantan and Sumatra, the head of birds of Papua, and the eastern part of Seram. Petroleum is also found off the coast of east Java and Kalimantan.

Crude oil (just out of the exploration wells) contains thousands of different chemicals in the form of gas, liquid or solid. The main ingredients are contained in the crude oil is aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Containing petroleum nitrogen compounds between 0-0,5%, 0-6% sulfur, and oxygen 0-3,5%. There are at least four series of hydrocarbons contained in petroleum, which is a series of n-paraffin (n-alkanes) which consists of methane (CH4) to the asphalt with a carbon atom (C) more than 25 in its chain, iso-paraffin series (isoalkana ) that there is only a little in oil, series neptena (cycloalkanes), which is the second largest component after the n-alkanes, and a series of aromatic (benzenoid).

The composition of hydrocarbons in petroleum are not the same, depending on the source of the oil producers. For example, American petroleum is the main component of saturated hydrocarbons, are dug in Russia many contain cyclic hydrocarbons, while in Indonesia there are many compounds containing aromatic and belerangnya very low levels.

Based oil boiling point can be divided into nine fractions. The separation is done through a process of distillation.

Factions Table petroleum
Problems occur when the petroleum products that bring people dimanfaatkann unwanted effects for the man himself or for the environment. An example is plastic petroleum products, which cause environmental pollution problems due to difficult degraded (takes a long time to destroy it). Not to mention the danger of oil spills in large numbers at sea, as happened in March 1989 in the Prince William Sound, Alaska (11 million gallons of crude oil from super tankers Valdex Exxon spilled into the sea) which caused heavy damage to marine ecosystems. Even according to the records, the costs required to clean up oil spills is expected to reach 1.5 billion dollars in the United States.

Therefore, action needs to be more effective and efficient in dealing with the waste generated by petroleum products. One of the quickest method is by oil degradation using microorganisms or often called biodegradation.

Oil Decomposition
Degradation of petroleum can be done by using microorganisms such as bacteria, some yeasts, mushrooms, sianobakteria, and blue algae. These microorganisms capable of describing the components of petroleum for its ability to oxidize hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons make as electron donor. These microorganisms participate in oil spill cleanup with oil oxidizes into carbon dioxide (CO2). For example, petroleum pendegradasi bacteria will produce bioproduk fatty acids, gas, surfactant, and biopolimer which can increase porosity and permeability of reservoir rocks and carbonate formations klastik when this bacterium elaborate oil.

In the oil there are two kinds of components that are divided based on ability to describe microorganisms, namely petroleum components are easily broken down by microorganisms and components that are difficult degraded by microorganisms.

Petroleum components that easily degraded by bacteria is the largest component in the oil or to dominate, namely alkanes which are more soluble in water and diffused into the bacterial cell membrane. The number of bacteria that degrade these components is relatively large because the substrates are abundant in petroleum. Bacterial isolates pendegradasi oil component is usually a normal alkane oxidizing.

Petroleum components that are difficult degraded component numbers are smaller than the easily degraded components. This causes bekteri pendegradasi this component amounted to less and grow more slowly due to competition from pendegradasi alkanes with more substrate. Isolation of bacteria usually use oil component remaining after the full growth of bacteria pendegradasi petroleum components that easily degraded.

Hydrocarbons are degraded types of microbes
1. Hydrocarbon Aliphatic compound
Microorganisms pedegradasi straight chain hydrocarbons in oil are relatively small compared pendegradasi microbial aromatic hydrocarbons. Among these are Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, certain yeasts, and fungi. These microorganisms use hydrocarbons for growth. The use of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons is a process of aerobic (with oxygen). Without O2, hydrocarbons are not degraded by microbes (the exception is the sulfate reducing bacteria).
Step pendegradasian saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons by microorganisms involves oxidation of molecular (O2) as a source of reactants and one oxygen atom incorporation into the hydrocarbon oxidized.

2. Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Many of these compounds are used as electron donor by aerobic microorganisms such as bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Metabolism of these compounds by the bacteria begins with the formation of catechol or Protocatechuate or compounds structurally related to these compounds. Both these compounds are further degraded to compounds that can enter the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle), the succinate, acetyl CoA, and pyruvate.
Factors Delimiter biodegradation
The ability of cells of microorganisms to continue its growth until oil degraded completely dependent on oxygen supply is sufficient and nitrogen as a source of nutrients. A scientist named Dr.. D. R. Boone found that the nitrogen remains the nutrient most important for the degradation of fuel. Also active microorganisms pendegradasi hydrocarbons is also influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature and pH. Environmental conditions are not suitable causing microbes are not actively working degrade petroleum. For example, the addition of nutrient inorganic such as phosphorus and nitrogen to the area of oil increase the speed Bioremediation significantly.

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