Tuesday, March 9, 2010

Greenhouse gases.

On earth, we get the energy from the sun. We will feel the heat when the sun is shining because the earth absorbs some energy from the sun. However, not all the energy is absorbed. Some energy is reflected back into space in the form of heat. Naturally reflected rays from the earth will be released into the air so that the heat in the earth tend to be stable. However, this situation would be disrupted if the Earth's atmosphere is a collection of gas that can block the reflected light into the sky.

As a result the light should stay away from the earth will remain concentrated in the surrounding earth, which grew more and more and make the earth hotter. This phenomenon known as global warming (global warming). Collection of gas that blocks light reflected from the earth called greenhouse gases (green house gases). The effects of greenhouse gases called greenhouse effect (green house effect).

Since the industrial revolution, human activity causes an increase in greenhouse gas concentrations to a level that is not expected. The greatest abundance is carbon dioxide (CO2) which reaches 64% of all greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. While the rest (36%) is a combination of several gases. Before the industrial revolution, atmospheric CO2 levels are still relatively low, ie 280 ppm in 1860. With more and more burning of fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas, CO2 levels rose to 379 ppm in 2005 (Forster et al, 2007).

Based on the 1996 IPCC guidelines, as revised, is categorized as a greenhouse gas is CO2, methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs, a group of gas), perfluorokarbon (PFC, a group of gas), and sulfur hexafluoride ( SF6). These gases is also a reference to the Kyoto Protocol (1997). Other greenhouse gases contained in the IPCC 2006 guidelines are nitrogen trifluoride (b3), trifluorometil sulfur pentafluorida (SF5CF3), halogenated ethers, and other halokarbon. Gases containing fluoride such as HFCs, PFCs, SF6, SF5CF3, and g3 can be categorized as terfluorinasi gases (fluorinated gases). These gases are produced primarily as a substitute substances or ozone destroyer Ozone depleting Substances (ODS), particularly chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or freon is widely used as a refrigerant and aerosol propellant.

It turned out that the attempt to replace substances damaging the ozone causing new problems, namely global warming. In fact, these substances have the potential of global warming (global warming potential, GWP) greater than CO2. For example, SF5CF3 has 18,000 times GWP GWP of CO2. Nf3, many compounds produced from semiconductor manufacturing process and making this LCD has a GWP of CO2 GWP 16,800 times. But overall, the potential of these compounds have not matched the potential caused by CO2, because CO2 emissions are very large. However, early control of emissions of these compounds should be done so as not to cause greater problems.

Besides the gas-greenhouse gases that have been agreed in the Kyoto Protocol, the scientists also mention some substances to watch out because it contributes to global warming. These substances are ozone, water vapor, and aerosols. These substances can also be categorized as greenhouse gases.

Ozone is a greenhouse gas that is continuously produced and destroyed in the atmosphere through chemical reactions. In the troposphere, human activities have increased ozone levels through the release of gases such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, which can chemically react to produce ozone.

Water vapor is a greenhouse gas with the highest levels in the atmosphere. However, human activity does not greatly affect the presence of water vapor in the atmosphere. Aerosols are tiny particles that are in the atmosphere with the size, concentration and chemical composition vary. Aerosols in the atmosphere comes from aerosol emissions directly or formed from other compounds in the atmosphere. Burning of fossil fuels and biomass, and industrial processes release aerosols containing sulfur compounds, organic compounds, and soot. Aerosols in the atmosphere can also arise from nature, such as from volcanic eruptions.

On earth, we get the energy from the sun. We will feel the heat when the sun is shining because the earth absorbs some energy from the sun. However, not all the energy is absorbed. Some energy is reflected back into space in the form of heat. Naturally reflected rays from the earth will be released into the air so that the heat in the earth tend to be stable. However, this situation would be disrupted if the Earth's atmosphere is a collection of gas that can block the reflected light into the sky.

As a result the light should stay away from the earth will remain concentrated in the surrounding earth, which grew more and more and make the earth hotter. This phenomenon known as global warming (global warming). Collection of gas that blocks light reflected from the earth called greenhouse gases (green house gases). The effects of greenhouse gases called greenhouse effect (green house effect).

Since the industrial revolution, human activity causes an increase in greenhouse gas concentrations to a level that is not expected. The greatest abundance is carbon dioxide (CO2) which reaches 64% of all greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. While the rest (36%) is a combination of several gases. Before the industrial revolution, atmospheric CO2 levels are still relatively low, ie 280 ppm in 1860. With more and more burning of fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas, CO2 levels rose to 379 ppm in 2005 (Forster et al, 2007).

Based on the 1996 IPCC guidelines, as revised, is categorized as a greenhouse gas is CO2, methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs, a group of gas), perfluorokarbon (PFC, a group of gas), and sulfur hexafluoride ( SF6). These gases is also a reference to the Kyoto Protocol (1997). Other greenhouse gases contained in the IPCC 2006 guidelines are nitrogen trifluoride (b3), trifluorometil sulfur pentafluorida (SF5CF3), halogenated ethers, and other halokarbon. Gases containing fluoride such as HFCs, PFCs, SF6, SF5CF3, and g3 can be categorized as terfluorinasi gases (fluorinated gases). These gases are produced primarily as a substitute substances or ozone destroyer Ozone depleting Substances (ODS), particularly chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or freon is widely used as a refrigerant and aerosol propellant.

It turned out that the attempt to replace substances damaging the ozone causing new problems, namely global warming. In fact, these substances have the potential of global warming (global warming potential, GWP) greater than CO2. For example, SF5CF3 has 18,000 times GWP GWP of CO2. Nf3, many compounds produced from semiconductor manufacturing process and making this LCD has a GWP of CO2 GWP 16,800 times. But overall, the potential of these compounds have not matched the potential caused by CO2, because CO2 emissions are very large. However, early control of emissions of these compounds should be done so as not to cause greater problems.

Besides the gas-greenhouse gases that have been agreed in the Kyoto Protocol, the scientists also mention some substances to watch out because it contributes to global warming. These substances are ozone, water vapor, and aerosols. These substances can also be categorized as greenhouse gases.

Ozone is a greenhouse gas that is continuously produced and destroyed in the atmosphere through chemical reactions. In the troposphere, human activities have increased ozone levels through the release of gases such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, which can chemically react to produce ozone.

Water vapor is a greenhouse gas with the highest levels in the atmosphere. However, human activity does not greatly affect the presence of water vapor in the atmosphere. Aerosols are tiny particles that are in the atmosphere with the size, concentration and chemical composition vary. Aerosols in the atmosphere comes from aerosol emissions directly or formed from other compounds in the atmosphere. Burning of fossil fuels and biomass, and industrial processes release aerosols containing sulfur compounds, organic compounds, and soot. Aerosols in the atmosphere can also arise from nature, such as from volcanic eruptions.

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