Tuesday, March 9, 2010

New Suspects in Global Warming.

Nitrogen - New Suspects in Global Warming.
Carbon dioxide emissions, global temperature increases, melting ice and climate change in color coverage universe every day. But whether our attention to excessive carbon dioxide have closed our eyes to the threat caused by the other element is more dangerous? The element in question here, which is a new suspect global warming, is nitrogen, and ignored it can lead to large losses for human health and the environment.

Nitrogen Nature.
Nitrogen is an important part of life. Plants, animals and bacteria all use of nitrogen in the fundamental building units called amino acids, and amino acids are joined to form proteins. Protein not only allows us to grow and function properly, but also form the basis of almost every chemical reaction in the body human.

Source of our primary nitrogen is the atmosphere, where nitrogen is a nitrogen gas (N2). However, in the form of gas, nitrogen is inert (not reactive) and only a few organisms are able to use them. Natural process taking nitrogen gas and conversion into compounds useful known as nitrogen fixation, and carried out by bacteria-nitrogen bond. These bacteria are "binding" of nitrogen into nitrogen-containing compounds other: ammonia (NH3).

Ammonia is more affordable than the biological nitrogen gas and penitrifikasi used by bacteria to form nitrite (NO2) and then nitrate (NO3). Nitrate-nitrate is a form of nitrogen that plants can be cultivated, so that is a form of channeling nitrogen into the food chain. But if all the nitrogen atmosphere in the end to end trip on the plants or animals, the shortage was imminent. Fortunately there is a complete bacterial denitrification cycle and convert the nitrate back into the inert N2.

This cycle is naturally regulated by the speed in which bacteria can transform one compound into another compound, and by the number of bacteria that are available in the soil. In the past, this led to the availability of nitrogen in the natural threshold to be used in biosphere at any time. However, technological advances have increased dramatically this natural limit, and consequently are ketidakterjangkauan nitrogen. Then what will happen?.

Causes of overdose of nitrogen.
Industrial Revolution beginning to carve a very significant change affecting the balance of nitrogen. Burning of fossil fuels such as large-scale coal and oil releases of nitrogen oxides high (including nitric oxide, or N2O) as a smoke. Nitrogen problem getting worse in World War I with the development of Haber-Bosch process, which allows N2 inert gas into ammonia is made without using nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Ammonia is produced into a valuable resource and can be used to make cheap fertilizer in the plantation. Another contributor to the increased nitrogen levels are burning trees and plants for agriculture, and manufacturing nylon plant. But with regard to industrial and agricultural success as a very crucial factor in all over the world, whether we are really going to stop making nitrogen compounds useful as artificial? Do we want to go back to the natural limits nitrogen cycle?

Why do we need to worry?
There are two main elements influenced by nitrogen compounds, namely human health and the environment. If the nitric oxide (N2O) reached the stratosphere, he helped destroy the ozone layer, resulting in UV radiation levels are higher and the risk of skin cancer and cataracts increases. Ironically, if N2O closer to the surface of the Earth he could actually make ozone, which can be a fog on a sunny day. Fog associated with respiratory problems, lung damage, increased risk of cancer and weakened immune systems.

As the impact on ozone, nitrogen oxides dissolved in atmospheric water to form acid rain, which mengkorosi rock and metal goods and damaging buildings. In 1967, an Ohio River bridge collapsed due to corrosion of acid rain; plants (including our food crops) and even humans are also at risk. The relationships between acid rain, Alzheimer's disease and brain damage was suspected, and with a variety of respiratory problems. So overall, not good news!

But the problem is happening more and more widespread. Excessive use of fertilizers on land and nitrogen compounds in animal feed causes the release of nitrogen into the water and river currents. Algae, whose growth is usually inhibited by the availability of nitrogen, using nitrogen flooding to grow out of control, leading to a large crowd of algae. This uses all the oxygen in the water and blocking the entry of light, which slowly kills aquatic life and prevents the plants under the sea to berfotosintesis. Worried, nitrogen levels in Norwegian lakes have doubled in the last ten years, and in western Europe, the amount of nitrogen compounds dideposisikan more than 100 times natural levels.

Back to the mainland, the level of the higher nitrogen in the soil means that very few plants that can survive because they could not compete. In plants is likely that plants can quickly take advantage of excess nitrogen for rapid growth, thus leaving fewer resources and more shelter for other species. This can cause many plant species are becoming extinct, and in turn will have an incidental effect on all animals, insects and birds that use it. Many species-rich fertile soils in the Netherlands who had been taken over by the forests that are less species for this reason.

Finally, nitrogen oxides contribute to global warming. Although the concentration of nitric oxide in the atmosphere is very low compared to carbon dioxide, global warming potential of nitric oxide is approximately 300 times greater. So even though carbon dioxide is causing climate change and the problems associated with it, nitrogen compounds can cause worse problems. Nitrogen compounds have the potential of global warming greater, can lead to problems of climate change is bigger, and cause malapetakan for health and the environment. So what can we do?

How to cope
Currently, 80% of nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere comes from human sources. This problem is a byproduct of our society are highly dependent on technology, but inside there is a solution. Similar technological innovation that can be used to reduce emissions, and catalytic pengonversi can convert nitrogen oxides into nitrogen gas that is not dangerous. Governments can also play a role. In California, large fields with more than a thousand dairy cattle now have to ask for a license to the Air Resources Board, which controls the levels of the release of large amounts of animals.

Actually there is one solution that can guarantee this nitrogen problem: reducing the amount of nitrogen that we use to bahar burn in everyday life. It's all good, but as with all the solutions for big problems, these solutions will also be very very difficult to implement.

Nitrogen - New Suspects in Global Warming.
Carbon dioxide emissions, global temperature increases, melting ice and climate change in color coverage universe every day. But whether our attention to excessive carbon dioxide have closed our eyes to the threat caused by the other element is more dangerous? The element in question here, which is a new suspect global warming, is nitrogen, and ignored it can lead to large losses for human health and the environment.

Nitrogen Nature.
Nitrogen is an important part of life. Plants, animals and bacteria all use of nitrogen in the fundamental building units called amino acids, and amino acids are joined to form proteins. Protein not only allows us to grow and function properly, but also form the basis of almost every chemical reaction in the body human.

Source of our primary nitrogen is the atmosphere, where nitrogen is a nitrogen gas (N2). However, in the form of gas, nitrogen is inert (not reactive) and only a few organisms are able to use them. Natural process taking nitrogen gas and conversion into compounds useful known as nitrogen fixation, and carried out by bacteria-nitrogen bond. These bacteria are "binding" of nitrogen into nitrogen-containing compounds other: ammonia (NH3).

Ammonia is more affordable than the biological nitrogen gas and penitrifikasi used by bacteria to form nitrite (NO2) and then nitrate (NO3). Nitrate-nitrate is a form of nitrogen that plants can be cultivated, so that is a form of channeling nitrogen into the food chain. But if all the nitrogen atmosphere in the end to end trip on the plants or animals, the shortage was imminent. Fortunately there is a complete bacterial denitrification cycle and convert the nitrate back into the inert N2.

This cycle is naturally regulated by the speed in which bacteria can transform one compound into another compound, and by the number of bacteria that are available in the soil. In the past, this led to the availability of nitrogen in the natural threshold to be used in biosphere at any time. However, technological advances have increased dramatically this natural limit, and consequently are ketidakterjangkauan nitrogen. Then what will happen?.

Causes of overdose of nitrogen.
Industrial Revolution beginning to carve a very significant change affecting the balance of nitrogen. Burning of fossil fuels such as large-scale coal and oil releases of nitrogen oxides high (including nitric oxide, or N2O) as a smoke. Nitrogen problem getting worse in World War I with the development of Haber-Bosch process, which allows N2 inert gas into ammonia is made without using nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Ammonia is produced into a valuable resource and can be used to make cheap fertilizer in the plantation. Another contributor to the increased nitrogen levels are burning trees and plants for agriculture, and manufacturing nylon plant. But with regard to industrial and agricultural success as a very crucial factor in all over the world, whether we are really going to stop making nitrogen compounds useful as artificial? Do we want to go back to the natural limits nitrogen cycle?

Why do we need to worry?
There are two main elements influenced by nitrogen compounds, namely human health and the environment. If the nitric oxide (N2O) reached the stratosphere, he helped destroy the ozone layer, resulting in UV radiation levels are higher and the risk of skin cancer and cataracts increases. Ironically, if N2O closer to the surface of the Earth he could actually make ozone, which can be a fog on a sunny day. Fog associated with respiratory problems, lung damage, increased risk of cancer and weakened immune systems.

As the impact on ozone, nitrogen oxides dissolved in atmospheric water to form acid rain, which mengkorosi rock and metal goods and damaging buildings. In 1967, an Ohio River bridge collapsed due to corrosion of acid rain; plants (including our food crops) and even humans are also at risk. The relationships between acid rain, Alzheimer's disease and brain damage was suspected, and with a variety of respiratory problems. So overall, not good news!

But the problem is happening more and more widespread. Excessive use of fertilizers on land and nitrogen compounds in animal feed causes the release of nitrogen into the water and river currents. Algae, whose growth is usually inhibited by the availability of nitrogen, using nitrogen flooding to grow out of control, leading to a large crowd of algae. This uses all the oxygen in the water and blocking the entry of light, which slowly kills aquatic life and prevents the plants under the sea to berfotosintesis. Worried, nitrogen levels in Norwegian lakes have doubled in the last ten years, and in western Europe, the amount of nitrogen compounds dideposisikan more than 100 times natural levels.

Back to the mainland, the level of the higher nitrogen in the soil means that very few plants that can survive because they could not compete. In plants is likely that plants can quickly take advantage of excess nitrogen for rapid growth, thus leaving fewer resources and more shelter for other species. This can cause many plant species are becoming extinct, and in turn will have an incidental effect on all animals, insects and birds that use it. Many species-rich fertile soils in the Netherlands who had been taken over by the forests that are less species for this reason.

Finally, nitrogen oxides contribute to global warming. Although the concentration of nitric oxide in the atmosphere is very low compared to carbon dioxide, global warming potential of nitric oxide is approximately 300 times greater. So even though carbon dioxide is causing climate change and the problems associated with it, nitrogen compounds can cause worse problems. Nitrogen compounds have the potential of global warming greater, can lead to problems of climate change is bigger, and cause malapetakan for health and the environment. So what can we do?

How to cope
Currently, 80% of nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere comes from human sources. This problem is a byproduct of our society are highly dependent on technology, but inside there is a solution. Similar technological innovation that can be used to reduce emissions, and catalytic pengonversi can convert nitrogen oxides into nitrogen gas that is not dangerous. Governments can also play a role. In California, large fields with more than a thousand dairy cattle now have to ask for a license to the Air Resources Board, which controls the levels of the release of large amounts of animals.

Actually there is one solution that can guarantee this nitrogen problem: reducing the amount of nitrogen that we use to bahar burn in everyday life. It's all good, but as with all the solutions for big problems, these solutions will also be very very difficult to implement.

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