Monday, March 1, 2010

Petroleum.

from Latin petrus - rock and oleum - oil), also known as black gold, is a viscous liquid, dark brown or greenish flammable, which are in the top layers of the few areas in the crust of the earth. Petroleum is composed of a complex mixture of various hydrocarbons, largely alkane series, but vary in appearance, composition, and purity. Petroleum is a mixture of different types of hydrocarbons. Composition of crude oil (petroleum) is a complex mixture, mainly composed of hydrocarbons with small amounts of sulfur-containing components, oxygen and nitrogen and very little metal-containing components.


Structure of hydrocarbons found in crude oil:

Alkanes. This fraction is the largest in the crude oil.
Cycloalkanes (napten) CnH2n cycloalkanes one has the ring 5 (five) of the ring siklopentana or 6 (six) of cyclohexane.

CnH2n -6 Aromatic ring Aromatic have 6 (six).
found only in small quantities, but very necessary in gasoline because:
- Has the price of high anti-knock
- Good storage stability
- And another useful as a fuel (fuels).

Proportion of the three types of hydrocarbons is highly dependent on the source of petroleum. In general, alkanes are the most hydrocarbons but sometimes (referred to as crude napthenic) containing cycloalkanes as the largest component, while the aromatic always a component of the least.

Refining / distillation (refining) is the process of change in crude oil into products that can be sold (marketeble product) through a combination of physical and chemical processes. Products resulting from the process of refining / distillation include:

Light component destilates is the smallest molecular weight. Here are a few pieces:

* Gasoline
Gasoline (United States) or motor spirit (UK) or gasoline (Indonesia) has the lowest boiling point and is a key product in the distillation is used as propellant motor (45% of processed crude oil to produce gasoline).

* Naphta
Naphta is a material which has a boiling point between gasoline and kerosene. Some naphta used as: - Solvents rubber - Starting materials of ethylene - the military is used as jet fuel and is known as the jP-4. - Solvents Dry Cleaning (Washing).

* Kerosene
Kerosene has the highest boiling point and is usually used as:
- Kerosene
- Jet fuel for planes water

Intermediate destilates a gas oil or diesel fuel use as a transportation fuel heavy trucks, trains, small boats commercial, agricultural equipment and others.

Heavy destilates is a component of high molecular weight. This fraction is usually converted into lubricating oil (lubricant oils), oil with a high density of fuel, candles and stock cracking.

Residues including asphalt, residual fuel oil and petrolatum. Residues have a large percentage who do not.

from Latin petrus - rock and oleum - oil), also known as black gold, is a viscous liquid, dark brown or greenish flammable, which are in the top layers of the few areas in the crust of the earth. Petroleum is composed of a complex mixture of various hydrocarbons, largely alkane series, but vary in appearance, composition, and purity. Petroleum is a mixture of different types of hydrocarbons. Composition of crude oil (petroleum) is a complex mixture, mainly composed of hydrocarbons with small amounts of sulfur-containing components, oxygen and nitrogen and very little metal-containing components.


Structure of hydrocarbons found in crude oil:

Alkanes. This fraction is the largest in the crude oil.
Cycloalkanes (napten) CnH2n cycloalkanes one has the ring 5 (five) of the ring siklopentana or 6 (six) of cyclohexane.

CnH2n -6 Aromatic ring Aromatic have 6 (six).
found only in small quantities, but very necessary in gasoline because:
- Has the price of high anti-knock
- Good storage stability
- And another useful as a fuel (fuels).

Proportion of the three types of hydrocarbons is highly dependent on the source of petroleum. In general, alkanes are the most hydrocarbons but sometimes (referred to as crude napthenic) containing cycloalkanes as the largest component, while the aromatic always a component of the least.

Refining / distillation (refining) is the process of change in crude oil into products that can be sold (marketeble product) through a combination of physical and chemical processes. Products resulting from the process of refining / distillation include:

Light component destilates is the smallest molecular weight. Here are a few pieces:

* Gasoline
Gasoline (United States) or motor spirit (UK) or gasoline (Indonesia) has the lowest boiling point and is a key product in the distillation is used as propellant motor (45% of processed crude oil to produce gasoline).

* Naphta
Naphta is a material which has a boiling point between gasoline and kerosene. Some naphta used as: - Solvents rubber - Starting materials of ethylene - the military is used as jet fuel and is known as the jP-4. - Solvents Dry Cleaning (Washing).

* Kerosene
Kerosene has the highest boiling point and is usually used as:
- Kerosene
- Jet fuel for planes water

Intermediate destilates a gas oil or diesel fuel use as a transportation fuel heavy trucks, trains, small boats commercial, agricultural equipment and others.

Heavy destilates is a component of high molecular weight. This fraction is usually converted into lubricating oil (lubricant oils), oil with a high density of fuel, candles and stock cracking.

Residues including asphalt, residual fuel oil and petrolatum. Residues have a large percentage who do not.

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