Monday, March 1, 2010

Scientists Have Found the Best Structure Near Green bacteria.

The team of international scientists has determined the structure of chlorophyll molecules in green bacteria used for the combustion of energy during the day. The results of this team can be used to build artificial photosynthesis system, such as the conversion of solar energy into electrical energy. The work of these scientists discovery will be announced on May 4, 2009 at the National Scientific Academy.


The scientists found that the chlorophyll is most efficient in terms of combustion heat energy. "We found that the purpose of the chlorophyll molecule made of green bacteria are more efficient in terms of combustion heat energy," said Donald Bryant, Ernest C. Biotekhnologi Professor in Penn State and is one of the team leaders.

Based on what was said Bryant, the green bacteria is a common type of organisms that live in areas that have low light levels, such as in the depths of the sea and 100 meters. These bacteria have structures called klorosom, containing more than 250,000 chlorophyll. "The ability to capture light energy and quickly send the energy required to place essential to these bacteria, sometimes only seen just a few photons per chlorophyll in the day."

Because they are having difficulty in his research on green bacteria, the bacteria is the last class which is structurally categorized in the combustion of complex light energy by the scientist. Scientists usually categorize mulekul structure using X-ray kristallographi, a technique that determines creation of molecules and atoms quickly provide information that can be used to create images of molecules; however, the X-ray kristallographi can not mengkarakteristikan klorosome green bacteria because it can only work on molecules with similarity to the field size, shape and structure. "Every klorosom has its own uniqueness," said Bryant. Green bacteria have often klorosom composition alternated making it difficult for scientists to use X-ray kristallographi to mengkelompokkan internal structure.

To get the answer, the team uses a combination of methods to study klorosom. They use genetic methods to create a mutant bacterium, cryo-electron microscopy to determine how much the bond distances between chromosomes, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine the structure of a component of chlorophyll molecule such chromosomes, and each part was taken for making a picture the end of a klorosom.

First of all, this team created a mutant in order to find the reason why the chlorophyll molecules in green bacteria increased due to increased time complex. To create these mutants, this team off the 3 genes in bacteria. This team estimates that these genes which play an important role in the ability to burn energy. Obtained so that chlorophyll can be more complex to improve the efficiency of combustion heat.

Second, the team split between the chromosome with the mutant and the original form of the bacteria by using cryo-electron microscopy - a type of electron microscopy cryogenik run with a super cool bertemperature - to get a picture of klorosom.

This team went one step further by using NMR cryogenicskopi to see more deeply about klorosom. This technique provides the ability to understand the relationship between the nucleus and obtain complete information about the molecule.

NMR data showed that the molecule consists of two simple and similar molecules with long hidrophobik layer or anti-water. Bryant said, "Kamipun study whether molecules of chlorophyll molecules to attack each other, and we also ensure that the distance between the molecules." NMR showed that the chlorophyll molecule is composed of helix spirals. In the mutant bacteria, chlorophyll molecules are located nearly at an angle of 90 degrees to the nanotubes. Then the last step is to retrieve all the data and create a detailed model of the structure on the computer.

If all chlorophyll is identical arranged in a chromosome, and the energy of the photons, once it is absorbed, the photon will go around all parts of chlorophyll, with enough time to eat a lot. But in the form of wild type has a big difference where the chlorophyll molecule is localized so that the ability of photon energy to migrate be limited. In other words, the energy of the photons can only run at a fraction of chlorophyll alone. The speed obtained is a matter for the bacteria that received little light photons at each chlorophyll per day.

Bryant said the results of these scientists will one day be used to build artificial photosynthesis systems that turn solar energy into electrical energy.

The team of international scientists has determined the structure of chlorophyll molecules in green bacteria used for the combustion of energy during the day. The results of this team can be used to build artificial photosynthesis system, such as the conversion of solar energy into electrical energy. The work of these scientists discovery will be announced on May 4, 2009 at the National Scientific Academy.


The scientists found that the chlorophyll is most efficient in terms of combustion heat energy. "We found that the purpose of the chlorophyll molecule made of green bacteria are more efficient in terms of combustion heat energy," said Donald Bryant, Ernest C. Biotekhnologi Professor in Penn State and is one of the team leaders.

Based on what was said Bryant, the green bacteria is a common type of organisms that live in areas that have low light levels, such as in the depths of the sea and 100 meters. These bacteria have structures called klorosom, containing more than 250,000 chlorophyll. "The ability to capture light energy and quickly send the energy required to place essential to these bacteria, sometimes only seen just a few photons per chlorophyll in the day."

Because they are having difficulty in his research on green bacteria, the bacteria is the last class which is structurally categorized in the combustion of complex light energy by the scientist. Scientists usually categorize mulekul structure using X-ray kristallographi, a technique that determines creation of molecules and atoms quickly provide information that can be used to create images of molecules; however, the X-ray kristallographi can not mengkarakteristikan klorosome green bacteria because it can only work on molecules with similarity to the field size, shape and structure. "Every klorosom has its own uniqueness," said Bryant. Green bacteria have often klorosom composition alternated making it difficult for scientists to use X-ray kristallographi to mengkelompokkan internal structure.

To get the answer, the team uses a combination of methods to study klorosom. They use genetic methods to create a mutant bacterium, cryo-electron microscopy to determine how much the bond distances between chromosomes, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine the structure of a component of chlorophyll molecule such chromosomes, and each part was taken for making a picture the end of a klorosom.

First of all, this team created a mutant in order to find the reason why the chlorophyll molecules in green bacteria increased due to increased time complex. To create these mutants, this team off the 3 genes in bacteria. This team estimates that these genes which play an important role in the ability to burn energy. Obtained so that chlorophyll can be more complex to improve the efficiency of combustion heat.

Second, the team split between the chromosome with the mutant and the original form of the bacteria by using cryo-electron microscopy - a type of electron microscopy cryogenik run with a super cool bertemperature - to get a picture of klorosom.

This team went one step further by using NMR cryogenicskopi to see more deeply about klorosom. This technique provides the ability to understand the relationship between the nucleus and obtain complete information about the molecule.

NMR data showed that the molecule consists of two simple and similar molecules with long hidrophobik layer or anti-water. Bryant said, "Kamipun study whether molecules of chlorophyll molecules to attack each other, and we also ensure that the distance between the molecules." NMR showed that the chlorophyll molecule is composed of helix spirals. In the mutant bacteria, chlorophyll molecules are located nearly at an angle of 90 degrees to the nanotubes. Then the last step is to retrieve all the data and create a detailed model of the structure on the computer.

If all chlorophyll is identical arranged in a chromosome, and the energy of the photons, once it is absorbed, the photon will go around all parts of chlorophyll, with enough time to eat a lot. But in the form of wild type has a big difference where the chlorophyll molecule is localized so that the ability of photon energy to migrate be limited. In other words, the energy of the photons can only run at a fraction of chlorophyll alone. The speed obtained is a matter for the bacteria that received little light photons at each chlorophyll per day.

Bryant said the results of these scientists will one day be used to build artificial photosynthesis systems that turn solar energy into electrical energy.

0 comments :

Post a Comment

you give times, i give you world,
if you have a website or something, please at the contents. thanks..

best regards,