Saturday, March 20, 2010

Upgrading biomass.

Upgrading biomass into fuel.
Making cheap fuel from biomass one step closer, thanks to a new catalyst developed in the United States. The catalyst - made of metal nano particles and carbon nanotubes - stretched the boundaries between water and oil and is very helpful in 'upgrading' raw biomass into useful fuels.

Quantity of biomass produced each year many, such as waste plant material from agricultural and industrial paper, and biodegradable household waste. Mixture can be dipanasakan to produce a slippery fluid called 'bio-oil', which need further improvement before it can be to use.

Bio-oil is made from a compound primarily derived from cellulose and lignin - and so in accordance with the fuel they need to - deoksigenasikan and changed some - about the same size. However the treatment of these reactions is difficult because of high levels of natural water is in the oil. These typically produce emulsions, with smaller molecules dissolved in the water phase, and longer molecules in the oil phase.

Researchers led by Daniel Resasco at the University of Oklahoma now has solved these problems with a catalyst to find out where the boundaries of oil and water meet and allow the reaction in both layers at the same time. These catalysts are made of magnesium oxide nanoparticles with carbon nanotubes that stood between them.

'Metal oxide nanoparticles are hydrophilic and orient the catalyst to water, where the nanotubes are hydrophobic and oriented toward the oil,' Resasco clear. 'On the side of the water itself, we can, put a condensation catalyst that encourages the formation of carbon - carbon to carbon chain length widen,' he added. 'It is crucial, the occasional chain becomes long enough, their solubility in water will fall, and they migrate into the oil phase. "

Carbon nanotubes (puutih) standing in the metal oxide nanoparticles (orange). Particles - particles are drawn into the oil-water interface, and the addition of palladium (yellow) to create a catalyst that can work in two phases

Palladium nanoparticles are also integrated into the structure - allows mixing of hydrocarbons in the oil phase to do that makes them deoksigenasi accordance with conventional fuels. It is very important, the catalyst remains on solid phase and can easily be filtered and recycled.

Robert Brown, a fuel expert at Iowa State University, United States, thinking that this job is something 'remarkable progress' for manufacturing purposes hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. However, he explained that the study is still in its early stages. 'Once you have begun putting catalyst into bio-oil in fact, all predictions will end,' he told Chemistry World. 'Kontaminant may poison the catalyst or clog pores - pores - so still a lot of work to be done. "

But Brown is confident that this process will be key to further development. 'Bio-oil has a very urgent case for the production of fuel that will come,' he said. 'New - recently we have been doing an economic analysis that suggested the route of bio-oil into synthetic fuel is one of the most effective that can be envisioned. "

'Unusual Fungsionalisasi of catalyst also find application in the production of other chemicals,' kataid Cole-Hamilton on Unibversitas St. Andrews, UK. In addition to the recurring cycle of reaction and separation, compounds can even switch between oil and water layers after consecutive reactions.

Upgrading biomass into fuel.
Making cheap fuel from biomass one step closer, thanks to a new catalyst developed in the United States. The catalyst - made of metal nano particles and carbon nanotubes - stretched the boundaries between water and oil and is very helpful in 'upgrading' raw biomass into useful fuels.

Quantity of biomass produced each year many, such as waste plant material from agricultural and industrial paper, and biodegradable household waste. Mixture can be dipanasakan to produce a slippery fluid called 'bio-oil', which need further improvement before it can be to use.

Bio-oil is made from a compound primarily derived from cellulose and lignin - and so in accordance with the fuel they need to - deoksigenasikan and changed some - about the same size. However the treatment of these reactions is difficult because of high levels of natural water is in the oil. These typically produce emulsions, with smaller molecules dissolved in the water phase, and longer molecules in the oil phase.

Researchers led by Daniel Resasco at the University of Oklahoma now has solved these problems with a catalyst to find out where the boundaries of oil and water meet and allow the reaction in both layers at the same time. These catalysts are made of magnesium oxide nanoparticles with carbon nanotubes that stood between them.

'Metal oxide nanoparticles are hydrophilic and orient the catalyst to water, where the nanotubes are hydrophobic and oriented toward the oil,' Resasco clear. 'On the side of the water itself, we can, put a condensation catalyst that encourages the formation of carbon - carbon to carbon chain length widen,' he added. 'It is crucial, the occasional chain becomes long enough, their solubility in water will fall, and they migrate into the oil phase. "

Carbon nanotubes (puutih) standing in the metal oxide nanoparticles (orange). Particles - particles are drawn into the oil-water interface, and the addition of palladium (yellow) to create a catalyst that can work in two phases

Palladium nanoparticles are also integrated into the structure - allows mixing of hydrocarbons in the oil phase to do that makes them deoksigenasi accordance with conventional fuels. It is very important, the catalyst remains on solid phase and can easily be filtered and recycled.

Robert Brown, a fuel expert at Iowa State University, United States, thinking that this job is something 'remarkable progress' for manufacturing purposes hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. However, he explained that the study is still in its early stages. 'Once you have begun putting catalyst into bio-oil in fact, all predictions will end,' he told Chemistry World. 'Kontaminant may poison the catalyst or clog pores - pores - so still a lot of work to be done. "

But Brown is confident that this process will be key to further development. 'Bio-oil has a very urgent case for the production of fuel that will come,' he said. 'New - recently we have been doing an economic analysis that suggested the route of bio-oil into synthetic fuel is one of the most effective that can be envisioned. "

'Unusual Fungsionalisasi of catalyst also find application in the production of other chemicals,' kataid Cole-Hamilton on Unibversitas St. Andrews, UK. In addition to the recurring cycle of reaction and separation, compounds can even switch between oil and water layers after consecutive reactions.

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