Monday, March 1, 2010

composition of petroleum.

Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons plus organic compounds of sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, and compounds containing metal constituents, especially Nickel, Iron and Copper. Crude oil itself is not a uniform material, but a very berkomposisi vary, dependent on the location, the age of oil field and also depth of wells. In light parafinik petroleum hydrocarbons containing less than 97% whereas in the type of weight asphaltik lowest 50%.

Hydrocarbon components
Comparison of the elements contained in crude oil varies widely. Based on the results of the analysis, the data obtained as follows:

* Carbon: 83,0-87,0%
* Hydrogen: 10,0-14,0%
* Nitrogen: 0,1-2,0%
* Oxygen: 0,05-1,5%
* Sulfur: 0,05-6,0%

Hydrocarbon components in petroleum are classified into three groups, namely:
* Parafinik class
* Naphthenik class
* Aromatic groups
* While olefinik groups are generally not found in crude oil, as well as hydrocarbons asetilenik very rare.

Crude oil contains a number of non-hydrocarbon compounds, particularly sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, oxygen compounds, organo compounds Metallic (in small amounts / trace as the solution) and inorganic salts (a colloidal suspension).

1. Sulfur compounds
Densitynya crude oil which has higher sulfur content of more tinggu as well. The presence of sulfur in petroleum are often many consequences, such as in gasoline can cause corrosion (especially in cold or runny), because the formation of acid produced from sulfur oxides (as a result of gasoline combustion) and water.

2. Oxygen compounds
Total content of oxygen in oil is less than 2% and increases with increasing boiling point fractions. Oxygen content could be raised if the product has been long associated with the air. Oxygen in oil is in the form of bonds as a carboxylic acid, ketones, esters, ethers, anhydrides, monosiklo and disiklo compounds and phenols. As a carboxylic acid form of acid Naphthenat (alisiklik acid) and aliphatic acids.

3. Nitrogen compounds
Generally, the nitrogen content in the oil is very low, ie 0,1-0,9%. The highest content of the type found in Asphalitik. Nitrogen has toxic properties of the catalyst and can form a gum / resin on fuel oil. Nitrogen content of most present in a high boiling point fractions. Nitrogen base class that has a molecular weight of the relatively low may be extracted with dilute mineral acids, while having high molecular weight can not be extracted with dilute mineral acids.

4. Metallic constituent
Metals such as iron, copper, nickel and vanadium in particular on the process of catalytic cracking catalysts affect the activity, because the product can reduce gasoline, a lot of gas and coke formation. Power generator at high temperatures, such as oil-fired gas turbine, the constituent metals, especially vanadium can form a crust on the turbine rotor. Ash produced from burning fuel containing mainly sodium and vanadium can react with refactory furnace (fire-resistant brick), causing a mixture of lower melting point so that refractory damage.

In order to be processed into products, crude oil transported from wells to refineries using the ship, pipeline, tank car or train. In refineries, crude oil is processed into products that we know of physics based on the trajectory boiling point (distillation), where the gas is at the top of the column fractionation and residues (tar) is at the bottom fractionation column.

Boiling point of each route is called "faction", ie:
0-50 ° C: Gas
50-85 ° C: Gasoline
85-105 ° C: Kerosene
105-135 ° C: Solar
> 135 ° C: Residues (feedback process more)

So the name of oil, or often also called crude oil is a mixture of hundreds of types of hydrocarbons from the smallest range, such as methane, which has one carbon atom up to the type of hydrocarbon containing at least 200 carbon atoms and even more.

Mostly the petroleum chemical composition are grouped according to four types, namely:
1. Paraffin
2. Olefins
3. Naften
4. Aromat

But since in nature can be said has never been found minnyak earth in the form olefins, then oil and then grouped into three types only, namely Paraffin, Naften and Aromat.

The main content of this hydrocarbon mixture is a paraffin or isomernya compounds. Isomers themselves are another form of a hydrocarbon compound that has the same chemical formula. For example in the normal-butane in the following figures have the isomers 2-methyl propane, or sometimes referred to as iso-butane. Both have the same chemical formula, the formula C4H10 but has a different build.

Hydrocarbons 'normal' is often also referred to as straight chain hydrocarbons, whereas compounds isomernya or 'iso' is often also referred to as the branch chain hydrocarbons. Both are types of paraffin oil.

While other hydrocarbon remaining in the oil-paraffin compounds siklo also called naften or aromat compounds.


'The hydrocarbon' above terebut called homologous, because most of the existing content in the oil can be separated into several types of purity for commercial purposes. In general, in the petroleum refinery, the separation ratio is the purity of the hydrocarbons that have carbon content of less than C7. In general, the compound can be separated and identified, but only for the purposes of the laboratory.

Siklo mixture of paraffin and aromat long-chain hydrocarbons in oil are made of petroleum oil is classified into types aspaltin.

Petroleum in nature never existed in the form of pure paraffin and pure aspaltin, but always in the form of a mixture of paraffin and aspaltin. The grouping of oil into paraffin oil type and oil type on the basis of many aspaltin or domination or aspaltin paraffin oil in petroleum. It means oil is said if the compounds of paraffin parafinnya more dominant than aromat and / or siklo parafinnya. And vice versa.

In industrial scale, from petroleum products are grouped according to boiling point range, or on the basis of its boiling point trajectory. Grouping of products based on the boiling point is more often performed than grouping based on the composition.

Petroleum is not entirely composed of pure hydrocarbons. In petroleum there are also impurities (impurities) in the form of sulfur (sulfur), nitrogen and metals. In general, a lot of impurities found in crude oil is an organic sulfur compound called mercaptan. Mercaptan is similar to hydrocarbons in general, but there is the addition of one or more sulfur atoms in the molecule.
Sulfur compounds are more complex in the petroleum found in the form of tiofen and disulfide. This disulfide Tiofen and many in the hydrocarbon chain length or in the middle distillate products (middle distillate).

Besides other impurities found in crude oil is in the form of organic halogen compounds, especially chloride, and organic metal, namely sodium (Na), Vanadium (V) and nickel (Ni).

The boiling point of paraffin oil and aspaltin can not be determined exactly, because it is very varied, depending on how the composition of the number of hidrokarbonnya chain. If the oil contains short-chain hydrocarbons which have a number of carbon atoms less then the lower boiling point, whereas if it has a long-chain hydrocarbons in which carbon atoms have more then a higher boiling point.

Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons plus organic compounds of sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, and compounds containing metal constituents, especially Nickel, Iron and Copper. Crude oil itself is not a uniform material, but a very berkomposisi vary, dependent on the location, the age of oil field and also depth of wells. In light parafinik petroleum hydrocarbons containing less than 97% whereas in the type of weight asphaltik lowest 50%.

Hydrocarbon components
Comparison of the elements contained in crude oil varies widely. Based on the results of the analysis, the data obtained as follows:

* Carbon: 83,0-87,0%
* Hydrogen: 10,0-14,0%
* Nitrogen: 0,1-2,0%
* Oxygen: 0,05-1,5%
* Sulfur: 0,05-6,0%

Hydrocarbon components in petroleum are classified into three groups, namely:
* Parafinik class
* Naphthenik class
* Aromatic groups
* While olefinik groups are generally not found in crude oil, as well as hydrocarbons asetilenik very rare.

Crude oil contains a number of non-hydrocarbon compounds, particularly sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, oxygen compounds, organo compounds Metallic (in small amounts / trace as the solution) and inorganic salts (a colloidal suspension).

1. Sulfur compounds
Densitynya crude oil which has higher sulfur content of more tinggu as well. The presence of sulfur in petroleum are often many consequences, such as in gasoline can cause corrosion (especially in cold or runny), because the formation of acid produced from sulfur oxides (as a result of gasoline combustion) and water.

2. Oxygen compounds
Total content of oxygen in oil is less than 2% and increases with increasing boiling point fractions. Oxygen content could be raised if the product has been long associated with the air. Oxygen in oil is in the form of bonds as a carboxylic acid, ketones, esters, ethers, anhydrides, monosiklo and disiklo compounds and phenols. As a carboxylic acid form of acid Naphthenat (alisiklik acid) and aliphatic acids.

3. Nitrogen compounds
Generally, the nitrogen content in the oil is very low, ie 0,1-0,9%. The highest content of the type found in Asphalitik. Nitrogen has toxic properties of the catalyst and can form a gum / resin on fuel oil. Nitrogen content of most present in a high boiling point fractions. Nitrogen base class that has a molecular weight of the relatively low may be extracted with dilute mineral acids, while having high molecular weight can not be extracted with dilute mineral acids.

4. Metallic constituent
Metals such as iron, copper, nickel and vanadium in particular on the process of catalytic cracking catalysts affect the activity, because the product can reduce gasoline, a lot of gas and coke formation. Power generator at high temperatures, such as oil-fired gas turbine, the constituent metals, especially vanadium can form a crust on the turbine rotor. Ash produced from burning fuel containing mainly sodium and vanadium can react with refactory furnace (fire-resistant brick), causing a mixture of lower melting point so that refractory damage.

In order to be processed into products, crude oil transported from wells to refineries using the ship, pipeline, tank car or train. In refineries, crude oil is processed into products that we know of physics based on the trajectory boiling point (distillation), where the gas is at the top of the column fractionation and residues (tar) is at the bottom fractionation column.

Boiling point of each route is called "faction", ie:
0-50 ° C: Gas
50-85 ° C: Gasoline
85-105 ° C: Kerosene
105-135 ° C: Solar
> 135 ° C: Residues (feedback process more)

So the name of oil, or often also called crude oil is a mixture of hundreds of types of hydrocarbons from the smallest range, such as methane, which has one carbon atom up to the type of hydrocarbon containing at least 200 carbon atoms and even more.

Mostly the petroleum chemical composition are grouped according to four types, namely:
1. Paraffin
2. Olefins
3. Naften
4. Aromat

But since in nature can be said has never been found minnyak earth in the form olefins, then oil and then grouped into three types only, namely Paraffin, Naften and Aromat.

The main content of this hydrocarbon mixture is a paraffin or isomernya compounds. Isomers themselves are another form of a hydrocarbon compound that has the same chemical formula. For example in the normal-butane in the following figures have the isomers 2-methyl propane, or sometimes referred to as iso-butane. Both have the same chemical formula, the formula C4H10 but has a different build.

Hydrocarbons 'normal' is often also referred to as straight chain hydrocarbons, whereas compounds isomernya or 'iso' is often also referred to as the branch chain hydrocarbons. Both are types of paraffin oil.

While other hydrocarbon remaining in the oil-paraffin compounds siklo also called naften or aromat compounds.


'The hydrocarbon' above terebut called homologous, because most of the existing content in the oil can be separated into several types of purity for commercial purposes. In general, in the petroleum refinery, the separation ratio is the purity of the hydrocarbons that have carbon content of less than C7. In general, the compound can be separated and identified, but only for the purposes of the laboratory.

Siklo mixture of paraffin and aromat long-chain hydrocarbons in oil are made of petroleum oil is classified into types aspaltin.

Petroleum in nature never existed in the form of pure paraffin and pure aspaltin, but always in the form of a mixture of paraffin and aspaltin. The grouping of oil into paraffin oil type and oil type on the basis of many aspaltin or domination or aspaltin paraffin oil in petroleum. It means oil is said if the compounds of paraffin parafinnya more dominant than aromat and / or siklo parafinnya. And vice versa.

In industrial scale, from petroleum products are grouped according to boiling point range, or on the basis of its boiling point trajectory. Grouping of products based on the boiling point is more often performed than grouping based on the composition.

Petroleum is not entirely composed of pure hydrocarbons. In petroleum there are also impurities (impurities) in the form of sulfur (sulfur), nitrogen and metals. In general, a lot of impurities found in crude oil is an organic sulfur compound called mercaptan. Mercaptan is similar to hydrocarbons in general, but there is the addition of one or more sulfur atoms in the molecule.
Sulfur compounds are more complex in the petroleum found in the form of tiofen and disulfide. This disulfide Tiofen and many in the hydrocarbon chain length or in the middle distillate products (middle distillate).

Besides other impurities found in crude oil is in the form of organic halogen compounds, especially chloride, and organic metal, namely sodium (Na), Vanadium (V) and nickel (Ni).

The boiling point of paraffin oil and aspaltin can not be determined exactly, because it is very varied, depending on how the composition of the number of hidrokarbonnya chain. If the oil contains short-chain hydrocarbons which have a number of carbon atoms less then the lower boiling point, whereas if it has a long-chain hydrocarbons in which carbon atoms have more then a higher boiling point.

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